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PREJUDICE AND

DISCRIMINATION
Prepared by: Jamie V. Canauay
DIFFERENCE OF PREJUDICE AND
DISCRIMINATION
Prejudicehas something to do with the inflexible and
irrational attitudes and opinions held by members of one
group about another, whilediscriminationrefers to
behaviors directed against another group.

Prejudices are Discrimination is


THOUGHTS. ACTING on those
thoughts.
WHAT IS PREJUDICE?
Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative)
towards an individual based solely on the individuals
membership of a social group.
It is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of
a group. Common features of prejudice include negative feelings,
stereotyped beliefs, and a tendency to discriminate against
members of the group. While specific definitions of prejudice
given by social scientists often differ, most agree that it involves
prejudgments (usually negative) about members of a group.
HAVE YOU EVER EXPERIENCED PREJUDICE BEFORE?
TYPES OF PREJUDICE
Racism
Sexism
Classism
Homophobia
Ableism
Nationalism
Religious prejudice
Ageism
RACISM
Racism is defined as the belief that physical characteristics determine
cultural traits, and that racial characteristics make some groups superior.
SEXISM
Sexismis generally linked to negative sentiments with regard to females
that derive from the belief that females are worth less or less capable
than males.
HOMOPHOBIA
Homophobia encompasses a range of negative attitudes and feelings
toward homosexuality or people who are identified or perceived as being
lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT).
CLASSISM
Classism is prejudice or discrimination on the basis of social class. It
includes individual attitudes, behaviors, systems of policies, and practices
that are set up to benefit the upper class at the expense of the lower
class.

Poor people
are just lazy.
ABLEISM
Ableism characterizes persons as defined by their disabilities and as
inferior to the non-disabled. It is socialprejudice against people with
disabilities. Mentalism is the term used for people who have or are
perceived to have a mental disorder
RELIGIOUS PREJUDICE
Although all religions teach about love, sometimes
their attitudes towards other religions are prejudice.
This comes from an opinion that their religion is
superior. Religious prejudice, however, can also
happen when a person with no religious beliefs is
prejudiced against one or all religions.
NATIONALISM
Nationalism is a sentiment based on common cultural characteristics that
binds a population and often produces a policy of national independence
or separatism. It suggests a "shared identity" amongst a nation's people
that minimizes differences within the group and emphasizes perceived
boundaries between the group and non-members.
AGEISM
Ageism is stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups
on the basis of their age.
SOCIAL CAUSES OF PREJUDICE
Social scientists have also identified some common social factors that may
contribute to the presence of prejudice and discrimination:

Socialization
Many prejudices seem to be passed along from parents to children. The media
including television, movies, and advertisingalso perpetuate demeaning images and
stereotypes about assorted groups, such as ethnic minorities, women, gays and
lesbians, the disabled, and the elderly.
Conforming behaviors
Prejudices may bring support from significant others, so rejecting prejudices may lead
to losing social support. The pressures to conform to the views of families, friends, and
associates can be formidable.
SOCIAL CAUSES OF PREJUDICE
Economic benefits
Social studies have confirmed that prejudice especially rises when groups are in direct
competition for jobs. This may help to explain why prejudice increases dramatically
during times of economic and social stress.

Authoritarian personality
In response to early socialization, some people are especially prone to stereotypical
thinking and projection based on unconscious fears. People with an authoritarian
personality rigidly conform, submit without question to their superiors, reject those
they consider to be inferiors, and express intolerant sexual and religious opinions. The
authoritarian personality may have its roots in parents who are unloving and aloof
disciplinarians. The child then learns to control his or her anxieties via rigid attitudes.
SOCIAL CAUSES OF PREJUDICE
Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism is the tendency to evaluate others' cultures by one's own
cultural norms and values. It also includes a suspicion of outsiders. Most
cultures have their ethnocentric tendencies, which usually involve
stereotypical thinking.
Group closure
Group closure is the process whereby groups keep clear boundaries between
themselves and others. Refusing to marry outside an ethnic group is an
example of how group closure is accomplished.
Conflict theory
Under conflict theory, in order to hold onto their distinctive social status,
power, and possessions, privileged groups are invested in seeing that no
competition for resources arises from minority groups. The powerful may
CONSEQUENCES OF PREJUDICE
Prejudice affects people by limiting their lives, whether it is blatantly or subtly.
Prejudice can cause violence, crime and death when people express their prejudices
through aggression.
Discrimination
Treating some people differently than others or favoring one social group over another
based on prejudices.
Displaced persons:
People forced to leave their homes, either entering other countries becoming refugees
or remaining in their own country at some other safer location.
Eugenics:
A set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human
population.
CONSEQUENCES OF PREJUDICE
Refugees:
People who cross international boundaries either to escape prejudice and persecution
or environmental crises, such as prolonged droughts, in their home countries.
Genocide:
A deliberate destruction of a political or cultural human group.
Hate crime:
A violent attack against a person or group because of their race, ethnicity, religion, or
gender.
Prejudice:
A negative attitude towards others based on a prejudgment about those individuals
with no prior knowledge or experience.
Stigma:
A feeling of shame or of lesser social value than others.
WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION?
Discrimination
The act of prejudice against a person because they have a
certain set of characteristics. Discriminated characteristics can
include disability, age, gender reassignment, religion, race, sex
and sexual orientation.
Discrimination can take many forms but in many countries
around the world there are laws prohibiting any form of
discrimination.
It is the unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its
members.
EXAMPLES OF DISCRIMINATION
Sex discrimination
Racial and ethnic discrimination
Discrimination on the basis of nationality
Sexual orientation discrimination
Religious discrimination
Disability discrimination
SEX DISCRIMINATION
Sex discrimination may be direct or indirect. Direct sex
discrimination is when an employee is treating unfavorably because of
their sex. Indirect sex discrimination can occur if employers or
managers hold assumptions about what sort of work women and men are
capable, or not capable, of doing.

Example: Most Korean ESL companies dont hire men. This is due to their
belief that men cant be patient and that students are afraid of male
teachers.
RACIAL AND ETHNIC
DISCRIMINATION
Acts of bias based on the race or ethnicity of the victim.

Example: A person who chooses not to employ those of a


certain race or ethnicity because he believes they are in some
way inferior to another, he is discriminating based upon a
specific kind of prejudice called racism.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION DISCRIMINATION
Prejudging someone because of their sexual orientation is called
homophobia, and it's often based on the stereotype that all gay men or
lesbians are a certain way and thus inferior.

Example: People who believe that all gay people are promiscuous and carry
AIDS.
DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF
NATIONALITY
National origin discrimination involves treating people unfavorably
because they are from a particular country or part of the world, because
of ethnicity or accent, or because they appear to be of a certain ethnic
background (even if they are not).

Example: An Asian-American gets called a FOB even though he was born


and raised in the US.
RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION
Involves treating a person unfavorably because of his or
her religious beliefs.

Example: An Arab man is refused to enter and


establishment because the management believes,
Muslims are terrorists.
DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION
Disability discriminationis the unequal treatment of
an individual based on that individual's real or perceived
disability.

Example: An applicant is denied because of his/her


medical history.
CONFORMITY AS AN EXPLANATION OF
PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION
Influences that cause individuals to be racist or sexist, for example,
may come from peers parents and group membership. Conforming to
social norms means people adopt the normal set of behavior(s)
associated with a particular group or society.
Social norms - behavior considered
appropriate within a social group - are
one possible influence on prejudice and
discrimination. People may have
prejudiced beliefs and feelings and act in
a prejudiced way because they are
conforming to what is regarded as normal
in the social groups to which they belong.
SOLUTIONS TO PREJUDICE
Selfesteem hypothesis
When people have an appropriate education and higher self
esteem, their prejudices will go away.
Contact hypothesis
States that the best answer to prejudice is to bring together
members of different groups so they can learn to appreciate
their common experiences and backgrounds.
Cooperation hypothesis
Holds that conflicting groups need to cooperate by laying aside
their individual interests and learning to work together for
shared goals.
SOLUTIONS TO PREJUDICE
Legal hypothesis
States prejudice can be eliminated by enforcing laws
against discriminative behavior.
Cooperative learning
Learning that involves collaborative interactions
between students, while surely of positive value to
students, does not assure reduction of hostility
between conflicting groups. Cooperation is usually too
limited and too brief to surmount all the influences in a
person's life.