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First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be

created or destroyed. The total amount of energy and matter in
the Universe remains constant, merely changing from one form to
another.

The energy balance of a system is a powerful tool to analyze the

exchanges of energy between the system and its environment.

We need to define the concept of internal energy of the system,

Eint as an energy stored in the system.
FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS : CLOSED SYSTEM
1. Undergoing a cycle

Consider a system consists of know mass of water in an adiabatic

vessel with a paddle wheel. Initial temp of system is t1.
W be the amount of work done on the system by paddle wheel. After
the work transfer let the temp raise to t2.
Let the insulation be removed. System and surrounding interact by
heat transfer till the system returns to initial temp t1.
Q be the amount of heat transfer.
System thus executes a cycle.
It has been found out experimentally that the work is proportional to
heat and the constant of proportionality is called the Joules
equivalent.

2. Undergoing a change of state

If a system undergoes a change of state along with heat and work
transfer then the net energy transfer will be stored with in the
system.
W be the amount of work done by the system
Q be the amount of work done to the system
E = Q-W
E is the internal energy

E U KE PE
SPECIFIC HEAT

The specific heat is defined as the energy required to raise the

temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree. There
are two kinds of specific heats:
specific heat at constant volume, Cv (the energy required when
the volume is maintained constant)
specific heat at constant pressure, Cp (the energy required when
the pressure is maintained constant)
Heat energy can be added to (or lost from) the system. The value
of the heat energy transferred depends on the process.
Typical processes are
- At constant volume QV CV T ; QV CV dT
- At constant pressure QP CP T ; QP CP dT
PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE OF THE FIRST KIND

A perpetual motion machine of the first kind produces work

without the input of energy. It thus violates the first law of
thermodynamics: the law of conservation of energy.
The law of conservation of energy is an empirical law of
physics. It states that the total amount of energy in an isolated
system remains constant over.
A consequence of this law is that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed: it can only be transformed from one
state to another.
Hence, it is impossible for a machine to do the work infinitely
without consuming energy.