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BIS4225.

2
Introduction to
Information Systems
Architecture
1
Objectives
To understand an
Enterprise Architecture
for building
Information Systems.

2
Reading Materials
Zachman (1996)
Zachman (1997)

Z(1996, 1997) 3
Systems Development
CORPORATE Enterprise-
MISSION
Oriented
approach to
Systems
GOALS
OBJECTIVES
Development
IS OTHER
OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES

IS OTHER
BUSINESS PLAN BUSINESS PLANS

Notes 4
Vertical Development
CORPORATE
MISSION

GOALS
OBJECTIVES

Notes 5
Vertical Development
Piece-meal or bottom-up
department-oriented approach
Isolated systems
Proprietary data, software,
technology components
Redundancy, duplication
Incompatibility
Difficult to maintain
Notes 6
Horizontal Development
CORPORATE
MISSION

GOALS
OBJECTIVES

Notes 7
Horizontal Development
Applications designed around
business activities or processes
Integrated business processes and
data

Notes 8
Development Methods
Examples:
SSADM Object-Orientation
Data Modelling UML
focusses mainly on a
single project environment
and on back-end activities

Z(1996, 1997) 9
SDLC
Project Systems
IS Planning Construction
Initiation Analysis

Feasibility Business Transition/


Study Systems Design Implementation

SSADM Physical Maintenance


Focus Design & Review

Z(1996, 1997) 10
Introduction
Building an information
system is similar to
building a complex
product, such as a building
and an aircraft.

Z(1996, 1997) 11
Example
Planning
Aircraft Info System
Figure out the IS planning
architecture
(bridges strategy
and
implementation).

Z(1996, 1997) 12
Example
Development
Aircraft Info System
Build part-by- Build part-by-part
part. (sub-programs or
Assemble them. units).
Assemble them
(system or
application).

Z(1996, 1997) 13
Example
Implementation
Aircraft Info System
On the whole, the On the whole, it
aircraft can fly. may not work too
Aircraft functions well.
for a long time. System gets
obsolete quickly.

Z(1996, 1997) 14
Example
Maintenance
Aircraft Info System
Can be Time-consuming
maintained for a and costly to
long time. maintain.

Z(1996, 1997) 15
Enterprise Architecture
Required for:
quality
timely results
managing change in complex
products (systems)

Z(1996, 1997) 16
Enterprise Architecture
For practical
implementation, this needs
understanding of:
Concepts
Technologies
Methods
Z(1996, 1997) 17
Enterprise Architecture
For Information Systems, the
difficulty is to get from
strategy (expectations)

to

implementation.
Z(1996, 1997) 18
Enterprise Architecture
It needs an architecture that
can:
Bridge the gap between strategy
and implementation.
Establish an enterprise
environment that is conducive to
change.
Help manage product change.
Z(1996, 1997) 19
Enterprise Architecture
There is a generic
development process for
building products and
systems. However, it is not
represented by a single
architecture, but a set of
architectures.
Z(1996, 1997) 20
Zachmans Framework
Representations from
different perspectives (or
roles for producing the
product/system).
Intersecting
characteristics of the
product/system.
Z(1996, 1997) 21
Zachmans Framework
Five Perspectives:
Planner (Ballpark) View (Scope)
Owner (Enterprise Model)
Designer (Model of the IS)
Builder (Technology Model)
Sub-Contractor (Detailed
Representations)
Z(1996, 1997) 22
Zachmans Framework
Six Abstractions:
Data: What is the product/system
made of?
Function (Process): How does the
product/system work?
Network (Technology): Where the
components are located (relative to
one another)?
Z(1996, 1997) 23
Zachmans Framework
Six Abstractions (cont.):
People: Who does what work (relative
to the product/system)?
Time: When do things happen?
Motivation: Why are various
product/system choices being made?

Z(1996, 1997) 24
Zachmans Framework
Data Func. Nwk. Peop. Time Mot.
Planner

Owner
Designer
Builder

Sub-Contr.

Z(1996, 1997) 25
Zachmans Framework
Data Func. Nwk. Peop. Time Mot.
Planner

Owner
Designer
Builder

Sub-Contr.

Z(1996, 1997) 26
Zachmans Framework

Apply at
Enterprise Level

Z(1996, 1997) 27
Zachmans Framework
Data Func. Nwk. Peop. Time Mot.
Planner

Owner
Designer
Builder

Sub-Contr.

Z(1996, 1997) 28
Zachmans Framework
Planner (Ballpark) View
Corporate business strategy
High-level business activities
and information needs
Defines business processes
Focus on critical data assets
Z(1996, 1997) 29
Zachmans Framework
Owners View
Considers Info Systems
Essentially a business view
Does not specify technology
IS is a set of related data and
processes
Z(1996, 1997) 30
Zachmans Framework
Owners View (cont.)
Define boundaries of IS
Relate enterprise data to
enterprise function (affinity
analysis)
Focus on linkages between
systems
Z(1996, 1997) 31
Strategic Levels & Linkages
IT is a strategic resource.
Need to develop a
strategic orientation for
technology and systems.

Notes 32
Strategic Levels & Linkages
Business Information
Strategy Technology

Information
Systems
Strategy

Notes 33
Info Systems Strategy
Three Levels of Strategy:
Information Systems
the ends
Information Technology
the means
Information Management
the management aspect
Notes 34
Info Systems Strategy
Info Systems
(Applications)

Info Tech Info Mgt


(Delivery) (Management)

Notes 35