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dr. Nurul Hidayati

Anatomy-Histology Department
Faculty of Medicine
University of Muhammadiyah-Malang
Appendicular skeleton includes the bones of :
The upper and lower limbs
Associated bones (called girdles) that connect them to
the trunk at the shoulder and pelvis
The aims of this topic are :
Students will be able to mention the name of bones
arranged into appendicular skeleton
Students could classify the bones based on the
structure (and the function) of appendicular skeleton
Students could analyze and identify the bones and
their connections each other to form the appendicular

Bones form upper limb into 2 group classified

Pectoral girdle (cingulum extremitas
The shoulder blade : os scapula
The S-shaped / collar bone : os claviculae
Upper limb (extremitas cranialis)
The brachium (arm) : os humerus
The antebrachium (forearm) : os radius et os ulna
The wrist : ossa carpalia
The hand : ossa metacarpalia et phalanxes
Pectoral Girdle

Each arm articulates with the trunk at

the pectoral girdle / shoulder girdle
The only direct connection between
pectoral girdle and axial skeleton :
the sternoclavicular joint
Skeletal muscles support and position
the scapula
Movements of the clavicle and
scapula position the shoulder joint
and provide a base for arm
Calvicle bone (os claviculae)
Fx. Connects the pectoral girdle and
the axial skeleton : sternoclavicular
joint determine and limit the
shoulder movement

Originates at the craniolateral border of

the manubrium sterni, curves in S-
shaped laterally and dorsally until form
the acromioclavicular joint with scapula

The attachment sites for ligaments of

the shoulder : the conoid tubercle and
the costal tuberosity
Scapula bone (os scapulae)
Broad triangle with many
surface markings reflecting the
attachment of muscles, tendons
and ligaments
The scapula position : muscle
attached along the edge of
scapula sides
Three margins and corners /
angles, two area of scapular
Superior margin : incisura
scapularis, procc.
coracoideus, acromion (arti- Posterior surface : supra and
culates with clavicula) infraspinata fossa, separated by spina
Lateral angle : fossa scapulae
glenoidalis shoulder joint
Anterior surface : Subscapular fossa
Humerus bone (os humerus)
Proxmal epiphyses :
Caput humeri as part of shoulder joint
Greater and lesser tubercle (tuberculum major et
minor) be separated by intertubercular groove
(sulcus intertubercularis)
Anatomical neck marks the distal limit of the articular
capsule in the shoulder joint
Surgical neck corresponds to the metaphysis of the
growing bone : fractures often occur
Diaphyses : tuberositas deltoidea, sulcus radialis
End epiphyses :
Condylus lateralis capitulum humeri >< caput radii
Fossa radialis >< small part of caput radii
Condylus medialis trochlea humeri :
Fossa coronoidea (ant.) >< procc. coronoideus
Fossa olecranon (post.) >< olecranon
Sulcus ulnaris
Radio-ulna bones (os radius et ulna)
Parallel bones,radius-ulna,support the forearm
Membrana interossea lies between medial side
of radius and lateral side of ulna
The articulations are :
Elbow joint
Radio-ulnar joint
Wrist joint
In the elbow joint, os radius moves passively
following the ulna (as the main part with
humerus) to approach the capitulum humeri
Proximal and distal radio-ulnar joint get pronasi
and supinasi movement by the medial and
lateral rotation of caput humeri and incisura
ulnaris radii to the ulna
Processus styloideus of os radius and ulna
stabilize the wrist joint
Radio-ulna bones (os radius et ulna)
Ulna Radius
Olecranon form the point of the As the main part in the
elbow joint to get flexi-extensi movement done by proximal
Incisura trochlearis / semi- anf distal radio-ulnar joint
lunaris has superior lip Radial tuberosity as the
(olecranon) and inferior lip attachment of m.biceps brachii
(proc. coronoideus) The disc-shaped head of
Incisura radialis, lateral to humerus articulates with
procc. coronoideus, make capitulum humeri
proximal radio-ulnar joint Distal part considerably larger
Has little or no part in wrist joint to make wrist joint with ossa
Carpal bones (ossa carpalia)
Arranged proximal and distal rows
Lateral to medial, consist of :
naviculare manus, lunatum,
triquetrum, pisiforme
multangulum majus, multangulum
minus, capitatum, hamatum
Ligaments interconnect the carpals
and stabilize the wrist
Eminentia carpi radialis et ulnaris,
sulcus carpi, canalis carpi
The articulation among carpals
Lower limb
Extremitas caudalis
Structures arranged into 2 grup of bones
Pelvic girdle (cingulum extremitas
The hip : Coxae, sacrum and coccyx
Lower limb (extremitas caudalis)
The tigh : os femur
The leg (cruris) : os tibia et os fibula
The ankle : ossa tarsalia
The foot : ossa metatarsalia et phalanges
Pelvic girdle
Lower limb has the role to support
and protect the lower viscera
(reproductive organs) and receive
stresses involved in weight
bearing and locomotion

Lower limb transfers the body

weight from ossa vertebralis,
carried by femur to knee joint and
along the tibia transmit to tfoot e
talus to the calcaneus (across the
ankle joint) and then to the ground
Pelvis girdle
Sacroiliac joint

Symphysis pubis

Pelvis is a composite structure of : coxae of appendicular skeleton

sacrum and coccyx of axial skeleton
The connections : The sacro-iliac joint and pubic symphysis
Os coxae formed through the fusion of 3 bones in acetabulum of pelvis
os ilium, os ischium, os pubicum
Network of ligaments connects lateral borders of sacrum with iliac crest,
ischial tuberosity, ischial spine and iliopectineal line to stabilize pelvis
Iliopectineal line (linea arcuata/terminalis) divides pelvis into :
False (greater) pelvis
True (lesser) pelvis :
Pelvic inlet : the superior limit formed by either side of the base of
sacrum extended along iliopectineal lines to superior margin of ubic
Pelvic outlet : the opening bounded by the inferior margins of pelvis
formed by the coccyx, ischial tuberosity and inferior border of pubic
Pelvic cavity
Distantia pelvis
Distantia spinarum
Distantia cristarum
Distantia tuberosum
Conjugata vera
Conjugata diagonalis
Male and Female Pelvis
Structures to be differentiated:
- Pelvis major
- Pelvic inlet / aditus pelvis
- Pelvic outlet
- Curvature of sacrum and coccyx
- Incisura ischiadica major
- Pubic angle

Female pelvis :
Supporting the weight of developing fetus
Easing the passage of newborn through the
pelvic outlet in delivery
The femur (os femur)
The longest and heaviest bones
Transfer body weight through the knee
joint to the tibia
Caput femoris articulates with
acetabulum of the pelvis
Coxae valga coxae vara
Intertrochanter line (ant.) and crest
(post.) separating greater and lesser
trochanter mark the distal edge of the
articular capsule
Posterior view, several bone marking
as the attachment of muscles
Patellar surface on the anterior while
articular surface for tibia on the inferior
Patella bone

Sesamoid bone
Located within the tendon of
the quadriceps femoris, attached to
the base of patella
Posterior surface presents two facets for
The articulation with medial and lateral
condyle of femur
Patellar ligaments extends from the apex
of the patella to the tibia
The tibia-fibula bones
The large medial bone of the leg
The medial and lateral condyles articulate with those
of femur on the superior
Anterior margin begins at the distal tibial tuberosity,
can be felt beneath the skin
Interosseus border in the lateral side of tibia
connected with those of the medial side of fibula
Fibula is excluded from the knee joint (no part of
transfering the weight), connected to tibia on the
inferior of lateral tibial condyle
Distal tip medial and lateral malleolus of tibia and
fibula stabilize the ankle joint by preventing the sliding
of tibia across the surface of the talus
Tarsal bones (ossa tarsalia)
The ankle contains tarsal bones : os talus,
calcaneus, naviculare pedis, cuboideum,
et cuneiforme I, II, III
The articulations are
Talus and tibia with the malleolus of tibia
and fibula
Talus and calcaneus in the bottom of foot
and naviculare pedis forward
Calcaneus with cuboideum in anterior part
Cuboideum connected with lateral side of
cuneiforme III, and then in sequence to
medial part be connected to cuneiforme II
and I. These cuneiformes articulates
naviculare pedis in their posterior facets
Arches of the foot
The arches absorb and transmit
forces during walking and standing
Longitudinal arch
Medial longitudinal arch
os calcaneus, talus, naviculare pedis,
cuneiforme I,II,III, metatarsalia I,II,III
Lateral longitudinal arch
os calcaneus, cuboideum,
metatarsalia IV, V
Transversal arch
Pars distalis of cuneiforme I,II,III and
cuboideum, and pars basalis of
metatarsalia I-V

Ilmu tanpa amal, tiada berguna

Amal tanpa ilmu, membunuh pemiliknya
Tiada makna hidup tanpa mengamalkan kehidupan
Jagalah waktu. Marhaban ya Ramadhan
Created on October 3th, 2006