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# IGCSE FM Trigonometry II

Dr J Frost (jfrost@tiffin.kingston.sch.uk)
Objectives: (from the specification)

What makes this topic Further Maths-ey?
Technically this chapter requires no new knowledge since GCSE.

Harder
questions to
do with
sine/cosine
rule (e.g.
proofs or Harder 3D Pythagoras (e.g.
algebraic/surd angles between planes and
sides) between lines and planes)
Basic Trigonometry Recap
June 2012 Paper 2 Q10

## You always do sin/cos/tan of

? 7 7
the angle, not the .
sin 28 =

= ? = 14.91 sensible. We expect to be a lot longer
sin 28 than 7 because the angle is shallow.
More Examples
1 2
1
4 2 + 10

3
30

Find .
a) Determine cos
=
+ ?
=
If a fraction on each
= side (and nothing b) Hence determine the length .
+ else), cross multiply. Using triangle :
+ =
?
+ =
?
= =
=
= =
+
=

= +
June 2013 Paper 1 Q3 2

is a right-angled 2 21
triangle. is a point
on .
2
tan = 45
3

Find .

=

a) Work out the length of .
=

=
=
? ? Rationalise
= = , =
= denominator by
b) Work out the length of . multiplying top and
bottom by 2.
Using triangle : = =

= = ? =

= =
Exercise 1
NO CALCULATORS 3 4 Show that is an integer.
2
1 Find the exact value of . = ?

10 + 2 3 2 3+4
5 2 45

30 45
60 = ? 8+ 2
= +? = +?

7 4
5 Determine the area of 6 Work out the area of
triangle , giving trapezium
form + 3. 12

3+ 3 7
30
[AQA Mock Papers]
a) Using , find tan . = ?

?
=+

b) Work out the length of =?
3D Pythagoras
The key here is identify some 2D triangle floating in 3D space.
You will usually need to use Pythagoras twice.
Find the length of Determine the height of
diagonal connecting this pyramid.
two opposite corners of
a unit cube.
?3 ?2

3
2
2 2
1 2
1 2
We obtained the 2 by using
Pythagoras on the base of the cube. 2
AQA Mock Set 4 Paper 2 AQA Mock Set 1 Paper 2

## 1 A pyramid has a square base of sides 2 The diagram shows a vertical

6cm. Vertex , is directly above the centre of mast, , 12 metres high. Points
the base, . , , are on a horizontal
Work out the height of the pyramid. plane.
Point is due West of .
a) Calculate
=
+ =
b) Calculate the bearing of
from to the nearest degree

= ?
a)
=
= = = .

?
= = .
= . + .
= .
.
b) + .
= ?
Angles between lines and planes
A plane is:
A flat 2D surface (not necessary
horizontal). ?

## When we want to find the angle

between a line and a plane, use
the drop method imagine the
line is a pen which you drop onto
the plane. The angle you want is
between the original and dropped
lines.

Click for
Bromanimation
Angles between two planes

## To find angle between two

planes:
Use line of greatest slope*
on one plane, before again
dropping down.?
* i.e. what direction would be ball roll down?

Example:
6 Find the angle between

the plane and the
3 horizontal plane.

= ? =

Further Example

Find the angle between the
2 planes and .
We earlier used Pythagoras to
2
establish the height of the

## 2 pyramid. Why would it be wrong

2 to use the angle ?
is not the line of greatest
2 slope. ?

2
?
Suitable diagram ? Solution
2
= tan1 = 54.7
1 1
From a ball would
roll down to the
midpoint of .
Jan 2013 Paper 2 Q23

## The diagram shows a cuboid

and a pyramid .
is directly above the centre of
.

## a) Work out the angle between the

line and the plane .
(Reminder: Drop onto the
plane)

= + =

?
= = .

## b) Work out the angle between the

planes and .

= .
?
Exercise 2
1 A cube has sides 8cm. Find: 2 A radio tower 150m tall has two support cables
a) The length . ? running 300m due East and some distance due
b) The angle between and South, anchored at and . The angle of
?
the horizontal plane. . inclination to the horizontal of the latter cable is
50 as indicated.

8 150

300
50
8

a) Find the angle between the cable attached to

and the horizontal plane. ? = .
b) Find the distance between and . 325.3m
?
Exercise 2

3

4
20cm
12

8

24cm

7
24 24cm
A school buys a set of new extra
comfort chairs with its seats pyramid in
Frost Manor is as pictured, with
shape. is at the centre of the base of
horizontally level.
the pyramid, and is the midpoint of
a) Find the angle between the line and

.
the plane . ?= . a) By considering the triangle , find
b) Find the angle between the planes the length . 16cm?
and .
b) Hence determine the angle between
?= . the triangle and the plane

. ? = .
Exercise 2
5 [June 2013 Paper 2] is a 6 [Set 3 Paper 2] The diagram shows
cuboid. is the midpoint of . is the part of a skate ramp, modelled as a
midpoint of . triangular prism.
a) Show that = 7.5m represents horizontal ground.
b) Work out the angle between the line The vertical rise of the ramp, , is
and the plane . 7 feet. The distance = 24 feet.

? = .
.
c) Work out the obtuse angle between
the planes and .
.
? = .

You are given that =
Write down the distance . 48?
b) Greg skates down the ramp along . How much
further would he travel if he had skated along .
= = . . = .
?
Exercise 2
7 8

2 2 3
5
3
2
4
4
4
8
A truncated pyramid is formed by
a) Determine the angle between the slicing off the top of a square-based
line and the plane . pyramid, as shown. The top and
bottom are two squares of sides 2 and
? = . 4 respectively and the slope height 3.
Find the angle between the sloped
b) Determine the angle between the
faces with the bottom face.
planes and .

? = .
? = .

Exercise 2

N

4

3

a) is a point on such that is the line of greatest slope on the triangle .
Determine the length of .
By Pythagoras = , = and = . If = , then = . Then
can be expressed in two different ways:
= ?=

Solving: =

b) Hence determine . . = ? = .

c) Hence find the angle between the planes and . ?= .
.
Sine/Cosine Rule Recap

65
8 10

40
45
5
Sine rule angle, but this time
angle unknown, so put as
We have two angle-side pairs numerator.
involved, so use sine rule.

= =
?

?

= =

= . = .
Sine/Cosine Rule Recap

5

1
2.5

40
6
2

## All three sides involved (and unknown side

opposite known angle), so cosine rule.
= + ? Again, all three sides involved so cosine rule.
= . = + . .
= .
= . ?
.
= = .

Area of Non Right-Angled Triangles Rrecap

3cm
Area = 0.5 x 3 x 7 x sin(59)
= 9.00cm2?
59

7cm

1
! Area = sin
2
Where C is the angle wedged between two sides a and b.
Q1 Q2 90 Q3 4.6
27
130 15
80 11
40 60

12

?
a) = 41.37
b) = 483.63
? = 286.5
? ?
= 122.8

Q4
Q5 Q6 7 5
7
30
11 61
20
18 11
= 7.89?
= 147.5
?
= 17.79
Your calculator will say 32.5, ?
= 17.25
= 26.67?
?
= 73.33 ? obtuse angle.
but its clearly an (Hint: cosine rule is not good here
Remember that sin = as is not opposite known angle)
sin 180
Where it gets more Further Maths-ey
You will frequently encounter either
algebraic or surd sides.
The approach is exactly the same as
before.

2 + 1 2 = +3 2 + 2 + 4 2 2 2 + 4 + 3 cos 60
1
4 2 + 4 + 1 = 2 + 6 + 9 + 4 2+ 16 + 16 2 2 2
+ 10 + 12
2
2 2 2 2
4 + 4 + 1 = + 6 + 9 + 4 + 16 + 16 2 10 12
4 2 + 4 + 1 = 3 2 + 12 + 13 ?
2
8 12 = 0
8 64 4 1 12
= =42 7
2
(But = 4 2 7 would lead to side of 2 + 1 being negative)
Another Example
Jan 2013 Paper 2 Q20

1 1
Use = 2 sin
18 = 2 sin 30
2
1
18 = 2 = 6
2
2
2 2
?
= 6 + 12 2 6 12 cos 30 Can now use cosine rule.
= 7.44
AQA Set 4 Paper 1

Frost Special

2 6

60
2 = 2 + 3 2 2 3 cos 60
= 2 + 92 32
= 72 ? +3
= 7
Determine the value of .

= + + +
= + + +
=
?
= =
Exercise 3
1 [June 2012 Paper 2 Q13] Work out 3
angle .
+1

60
2 1
= . Use the cosine rule to determine .
?

+ = +

2 Here is a triangle. Work out .

?
=

=
?
Exercise 3
4 5

3 2

45
30 3
2
The angle is obtuse. Determine .
Given that the area of the
triangle is 24cm2. Find the
=
values of and .
?
=
=
= =

= (Remember that = )

?
= =
= .
Exercise 3
6 [June 2012 Paper 1] Triangle ABC has an
1
obtuse angle at C. Given that sin = 4, use
triangle to show that angle = 60

.
= =

=

+?
= = =
+

= =

Exercise 3
7

## June 2013 Paper 2 Q23

In triangle , bisects angle .
?
Use the sine rule in triangles and

to prove that = .