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Kinematics

Cars and Trucks and Things


That Go
Kinematics
Kinematics is the mathematical treatments
of the motions of bodies without regard to
the forces that produce the motion.
Kinematics is the science of describing the
motion of objects using words, diagrams,
numbers, graphs, and equations.
Kinematics is a branch of mechanics.
Mechanics - the study of the motion of
objects.
Scalar vs. Vector
Scalars are quantities which are fully
described by a magnitude (or numerical
value) alone.
Ex: mass, time, and temperature

Vectors are quantities which are fully


described by both a magnitude and a
direction
Ex: velocity, acceleration and force
Motion
Motion is the change of an objects position
in time.
Distance, Displacement, Position
Distance is how far an objects moves. It is
a scalar quantity.
Displacement is the vector version of
distance. It is the overall change in position.
Position is how far an object is from the
origin or reference point.
The SI unit for all of these quantities is
meters.
A picture of distance vs. displacement
A Mouse in a Maze

2m Distance traveled:
Position:
2m Displacement

3m
1m

2m
5m

1m 4m
Distance Formulas
For an object in uniform motion (constant
velocity)
d = vt
For an object undergoing constant
acceleration
d = di + vit = at2
d = (vi + vf)t
2
d =vt v :average velocity
Day 2

Graphing motion P-T graphs


Speed and Velocity
Speed is the rate of change in position. It is
a scalar quantity. Speed is always positive.
Velocity is the rate of change in position in
a given direction, and is a vector quantity.
Velocity may also be defined as the slope
of a position-time graph (often called a
distance-time graph.)
Constant aceleration vs.
constant velocity
Constant acceleration

Constant velocity
Velocity Graphs
Instantaneous velocity may be calculated
by finding the slope of a d-t graph. (or p-t
graph)
Velocity may be calculated in several ways:
Average velocity is simply total displacement
divided by time
V = d
t
Average velocity is also the average value of a
d-t graph.
Velocity Graphs
Instantaneous velocity is equal to the slope
of a distance-time graph at any given point.
For constant velocity graphs, simply calculate
the slope using d .
t
For accelerated motion, you would need to
find the slope of a tangent to the curve
Day 3

V- T graphs
Velocity Fomulas
To find velocity for an object in uniform motion
simply use the formula:
V = d
t
For accelerated motion, use a formula that
includes acceleration.
a= v
t
d = d0 + v0t = at2
vf 2 = v0 2 +2ad
d = (v0 + vf)t
2
Velocity Graphs
Instantaneous acceleration may be
calculated by finding the slope of a v-t
graph.
Acceleration may be calculated in several
ways:
a = v
t
Average acceleration is also the average value
of a v-t graph.
The Area Under the Graphs
The area under the v-t graph tells us the
distance travelled during the motion

The change in velocity is the area under


the curve of the acceleration graph

http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/semester1/c2_t
wocars_graphs.html
To Review
Graphs of an object's position, velocity, and
acceleration as a function of time can tell you a
great deal:
The velocity is the slope of the position graph
The displacement is the area under the curve of
the velocity graph
The acceleration is the slope of the velocity graph
The change in velocity is the area under the
curve of the acceleration graph