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Chapter One

Introduction to Project Management

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1
IT Projects Are Different
Traditionally high turnover rates of IT workers
Level of uniqueness and complexity of each project
due to the rapid changes in technology
Software is hard to visualize by the developer let
alone the customer
Difficulty in getting accurate customer requirements
Rate of change in requirements
Difficulty in testing all the possible states of software
Constant training needed to keep team members
current with the technology

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Advantages of Using Formal Project
Management Practices
Improvement in customer satisfaction
Better cost performance, higher return on
investment
Better schedule performance, better allocation of
time commitments and better utilization of
resources, higher productivity
Increased quality reducing re-work
Increase in delivering required features
Will make everyone happier (stakeholders, team
members, management)

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What Is a Project?
A temporary sequence of related activities
that must be completed to create a unique
product or service
Key Characteristics:
Temporary
Unique
Progressive Elaboration
Single unique purpose
Is routine work a project?
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A Project Is Temporary
It must have a beginning and an end
A project is done when one of the following
occurs:
The projects objectives have been achieved, as
agreed by the sponsor
It has been determined that the projects
objectives will not or cannot be achieved
The need for the project no longer exists, and the
project is terminated
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A Project Is Temporary
Projects which continue but should be
cancelled are referred to as Death March
projects!

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Projects Are Unique
Never been done before
Must contain a well-defined purpose
Because each project is unique, creates
uncertainty and risk

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Projects Are Progressively Elaborated
Refers to the idea that execution of the
project occurs in steps (phases) or small
increments, adding features and definition
until the final objective is achieved
Concept applies to the scope, time, and cost
of the project

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What Is a Project, continued
Secondary Characteristics:
Each project must have a primary sponsor or
champion
Projects usually cut across organizational lines
requiring resources from several different sources
They must do something, deliver something of
value

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What Is Project Management?
A controlled process of initiating, planning,
executing, and closing down a project

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What Is a Project Manager?
Systems analyst with management and
leadership skills responsible for leading
project initiation, planning, execution, and
closedown.

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Project Managers Skills?
Soft Skills
Leadership
Team building
Negotiation
Conflict Management
Organization for self and others
Communication skills (Technical/Non-Technical)
Change management
Active learning
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Project Managers Skills?
Technical Skills
Project management software knowledge
Understanding of the technology
Basic knowledge of business
Cost estimating and budgeting knowledge

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A Project Manager Manages
Projects by:
Setting clear and achievable objectives
Identifying requirements
Adapting the project to the various concerns
of the stakeholders
Balancing the demands of the triple
constraint

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The Triple Constraint (figure 1-4)

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Triple Constraint
Every project is constrained by a list of
customer-requested requirements (scope),
the amount of time available to produce the
system in support of the requirements (time),
and the limit of money available (cost)
Every project is constrained differently,
according to the goals of the system owner
(sponsor) and the project team

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Project Manager Skills
Soft skills: Technical Skills:
Leadership Project Management
Team building software
Negotiation Level of understanding of
Conflict management the technology being used
in the project (software,
Organization for self and
others hardware, network, etc.)
Basic knowledge of the
Communication both oral and
written to both technical and business
non-technical audiences Cost estimating and
Change management
budgeting
Active listening

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Six Basic Functions of Successful PMs
1. manage project scope make sure the team works on what is
needed for the project and nothing else
2. manage human resources the team must work together, this
doesnt just happen it takes a directed effort
3. manage communications this occurs at many levels, teammates,
customers, managers, vendors, and others
4. manage schedule must keep people on schedule delivering work
on time
5. manage quality need to make sure that all work performed
meets with customer expected levels of quality
6. manage costs must keep an eye on the budget to make sure all
the work can be done and not exceed the allocated budget

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Organizational Structures
Functional (traditional)
Organized around one of these characteristics: job
function, end product, customer groups, a specific
process, or geographic locations
Project
Organized completely around projects and
sometimes its mere existence is only for one
particular project (the Olympic games for example)
Matrix (Weak, Balanced, Strong)
Combination of traditional and project

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Functional (Traditional) Structure

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Project Organizational Structure

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Choosing the Correct Structure
Depends on:
The history of the organization
The industry the organization is in
Project characteristics
The tendency of many organizations today is
moving toward a matrix structure

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Chapter Two
A Systems View and Systems
Methodology

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Projects Cannot Be Run In Isolation!
Projects must operate in a broad
organizational environment
Project managers need to take a holistic or
systems view of a project and understand how
it is situated within the larger organization

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Systems Thinking
Allows projects to be viewed in the context of
the entire environment including both inside
and outside of the organization
Opposite of analytical thinking
Analytical thinking, things are broken into
progressively smaller parts and more highly
specialized disciplines

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Definition of System
An organized or complex whole; an
assemblage of things or parts interacting in a
coordinated way
Characteristics
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
(body)
They are dynamic and exhibit some kind of
behavior
Scope is in the eye of the beholder (or
stakeholder)
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Systems View
Forces review of the interrelationship of the
various subsystems
Is a dynamic process that integrates all
activities into a meaningful total system
Systematically assembles and matches the
part of the system into a unified whole
Seeks an optimal solution or strategy in
solving a problem

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Systems Terminology
Elements smallest part of a system being
studied (activity)
Subsystems a system is made up of subsystems,
smaller systems that are part of a larger system
such as the human heart is a subsystem of the
human body or the accounts receivable
subsystem is a part of the financial software
system of the organization
Attributes quantitative and qualitative
characteristics of systems (Project; Cost and
Progress )

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Systems Terminology
Environment anything that lies beyond the
decision makers control yet influences the
behavior or outcome of the system
Boundary what separates the system from
the environment
Most of what a Project Manager does exists on
the boundary!
Environment everything that exists outside
the system or outside the control of the
project manager
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Systems Boundary and Environment

2-30
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Systems Terminology
Objectives human-made systems are
designed to do something
Constraints - every system has limitations
forced on them from internal forces or
external forces and sometimes the limits are
self controlled (Scope, Time, Cost)
Requirement a partial need to satisfy the
objective

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Systems Terminology
Integration for a system to reach its
objectives, all the subsystems and elements
must work together effectively
Open and Closed Systems
Closed self contained, focus on internal
workings (machine). Ignore the environments
influence
Open just the opposite, they interact with the
environment and adapt. (humans, organizations)

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PMLC
A project management life cycle is a prescribed
order of phases (smaller segments of the entire
project) in which each contains a specific
deliverable which collectively deliver a result
What work will (should) be done in each phase.
A definition of each phases deliverables and when.
The change control process for each deliverable
What resources are involved in each deliverable
Criteria that needs to be met complete each phase

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PMLC
Every organization should create a standard
project life cycle in order to promote
communication within the team and
stakeholders and across all teams in the
organization
A deliverable is a product or service produced
or provided as part of a project
Project life-cycles and phases vary by project
and/or industry depending on the
Methodology

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Generic Iterative Life Cycle with
Six Phases

2-35
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A Project Lifecycle Should Include:
What specific work (activities) should be done in
each phase
A definition of each phases deliverables
(outcomes)
The integrated change control process being used
What resources are involved with each
deliverable
Criteria that needs to be met to complete each
phase
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Product Life Cycles
Building a Product also requires a life cycle
The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is an
approach to building information technology
systems consisting of a standard set of phases
each producing a prescribed set of deliverables
Review SDLC Models/Methodologies
Waterfall (predictive)
Spiral (somewhat predictive)
Iterative/Incremental (adaptive)
Agile (Scrum, RUP, Extreme Programming)
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Waterfall Model

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Waterfall Model
Strengths
Is well understood by most practitioners
Easier to manage than the new agile methods
When working on large complex applications
When teams are distributed geographically
When using a less experienced IT resources
Weaknesses
Does not accommodate a change to requirements very well
All Requirements must be known and defined in the beginning
Does not allow a repeat of a phase (iterate)
Limited adaptability to different project types
Encourages communications gap between users and IT

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Evolutionary Prototyping
Focuses on gathering correct and consistent
requirements and is the approach of building a system
incrementally through a series of gradual refinements
or prototypes
Requirements are discovered throughout the process
and the system is repeatedly refined based on those
discoveries
Allows developers to learn from each prototype and
apply those lessons to future versions
The prototyping approach is an excellent choice for
research and development projects, quickly building
mockups of system components for user review allows
for timely feedback that can be incorporated in the
next design or prototype

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Evolutionary Prototype
Strengths
Visibility customers see steady progress
Useful when requirements are changing rapidly or
no one fully understands the requirements
Weaknesses
It is impossible to know at the beginning of the
project how long it will take
There is no way to know the number of
iterations/phases that will be required
Difficult to build an accurate cost estimate
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Spiral Model
Similar to the classic waterfall model with the
addition of risk analysis and iterations
emphasizes the need to go back and reiterate
earlier stages a number of times as the project
progresses
It's actually a series of short waterfall cycles,
each producing an early prototype
representing a part of the entire project

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Spiral Model

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Spiral Model
Strengths
Good for large complex projects
Accommodates change well
Can react to risks very quickly
Software produced early in the life of the project
Increased user visibility
Weaknesses
Can be a costly model to use
Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise
Projects success highly dependent on risk analysis
Doesnt work well for small projects

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Iterative and Incremental Model
Repeating a process phase until ultimately
meeting the project requirements (iterating
the phases) and developing and delivering a
system in stages (increments)
The system grows by adding new and
enhanced functionality with each build cycle
Each cycle tackles a relatively small set of
requirements and proceeds until the entire
scope of the project is completed
Similar to the spiral model

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Iterative and Incremental Model

2-46
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Iterative and Incremental Model
Strengths
Generates working software quickly and early
Flexibility
Ease of testing
Ease of risk management
Weaknesses
Not easy to manage
Must be able to estimate well to plan iterations
Hard to determine cost and time estimates early
in the process

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An Agile Process
Is driven by customer descriptions of
what is required (scenarios)
Recognizes that plans are short-lived
Develops software iteratively with a
heavy emphasis on construction
activities
Delivers multiple software increments
Adapts as changes occur
48
Extreme Programming (XP)
The most widely used agile process, originally
proposed by Kent Beck
XP Planning
Begins with the creation of user stories
Agile team assesses each story and assigns a cost
Stories are grouped to for a deliverable increment
A commitment is made on delivery date
After the first increment project velocity is used
to help define subsequent delivery dates for other
increments 49
Extreme Programming (XP)
XP Design
Follows the KIS principle
For difficult design problems, suggests the
creation of spike solutionsa design prototype
Encourages refactoringan iterative refinement
of the internal program design

50
Extreme Programming (XP)
XP Coding
Recommends the construction of a unit test for a
store before coding commences
Encourages pair programming
XP Testing
All unit tests are executed daily
Acceptance tests are defined by the customer
and executed to assess customer visible
functionality

51
Chapter Three
The Project Management Framework

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Project Management Knowledge
Continues to Grow and Mature
The PMBOK Guide 2000 Edition is an ANSI
standard
Released end of `04 - PMBOK 3rd Edition
Just released A Guide to the PMBOK 4th edition
PMIs certification department earned ISO 9000
certification
Hundreds of new books, articles, and presentations
related to project management have been written
in recent years

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Project Management Certification
PMI provides certification as a Project
Management Professional (PMP)
A PMP has documented sufficient project
experience (3 years), agreed to follow a code
of ethics, and passed the PMP exam
(200 questions in 4 hours)
More on certification found in Appendix C

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The PMBOK
The PMI Project Management Body of
Knowledge framework used for the text is
structured around:
five process groups which are made up of
component processes consisting of tools,
techniques, and outcomes organized within
nine knowledge areas

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Process Groups and
Knowledge Areas

Figure 3-1

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Process Groups
Initiating processes authorizing the beginning or
ending of a project or phase
Planning processes ensuring that the objectives of
the project are achieved in the most appropriate way
Executing processes coordinating all resources
(people and material) during the implementation of
the project plan
Controlling processes monitoring of project
variances from what was planned to actual progress
Closing processes formal acceptance of the project
or a phase and updating of the project information
base with lessons learned

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Process Groups Overlap in Time

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Process Groups
Process groups supply a roadmap to follow,
and the knowledge areas describe the
methods (for example, car, plane, bus) of how
to get to our destination, which is project
success

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PMBOK Knowledge Areas
Integration Management
Scope Management
Time Management
Cost Management
Quality Management
Human Resources Management
Communications Management
Risk Management
Procurement Management
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Knowledge Areas
The knowledge areas represent the body of
knowledge that a project manager must have
in order to consistently deliver successful
projects that meet a customers expectations
in terms of scope, time, cost, and quality of
the project deliverables

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Chapter Four
Project Initiation

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Strategic Planning and Project
Selection
The first step before initiating projects is to
look at the big picture systems approach or
strategic plan of an organization
Strategic planning involves determining long-
term business objectives (long-term?)
IT projects should support strategic and
financial business objectives

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Identifying Potential Projects
Organizations should follow a documented
consistent planning process for selecting IT
projects
1. First, develop an IT strategic plan in support of
the organizations overall strategic plan
2. Then perform a business area analysis
3. Next, define potential projects, build the business
case
4. Finally, select IT projects and assign resources

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Four Key Issues Needing Answers for
All Technology Projects
1. Business Value
2. Technology
3. Cost/Benefit questions
4. Risk

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Methods for Selecting Projects
In every organization, there are always more
projects than available time and resources to
implement them
Very important to follow a repeatable and
complete process for selecting IT projects, to
get the right mix (portfolio) for the
organization
Business case a document composed of a
set of project characteristics (costs, benefits,
risk, etc.) that aid organization decision
makers in deciding what projects to work on
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- 66
Business Case
Contents of the business case may include:
Key business objectives
Methods and sources used to obtain information
Benefits to the organization if the project is
successful
Consequences if the project is not done
Full life-cycle costs
Qualitative models
Quantitative models
Risks

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Strategic Planning
A formal document that outlines an
organizations 3 to 5 year mission, vision, goals,
objectives, and strategies
The main goal of any project should be to deliver
some form of business value: higher market
share, new product or market, better customer
support, higher productivity, lower operating
costs, etc.
All of these are typically defined in the companys
strategic plan as goals and objectives. Listed next
to each goal or objective is a list of strategies
which will fulfill the objective

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Strategic Planning
The development of strategies (projects) must
focus on what is needed to meet the strategic
plans goals and objectives
A question that is often asked - Does the
proposed project deliver a product or service
which was defined as an objective on the
strategic plan?

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Strategic Planning
An often used tool to build the strategic plan
is called SWOT analysis. An information
gathering technique to evaluate external
influences against internal capabilities
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats

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Selection Tools
Qualitative Models
Subject matter expert judgments
Sacred Cow
Mandates
Quantitative Models
Net Present Value (NPV)
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
Return on Investment
Payback Period

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Qualitative Models
Subject matter expert (SME) judgments
Individuals either within the company or outside the
company who possess expertise or unique knowledge in a
particular facet of the business either by work experience,
education, or a combination of both
SMEs can be used to evaluate projects with or without
more complex quantitative models and categorize projects
with low, medium, and high priority rankings
Sacred Cow
Sacred Cow decisions are made because someone
generally in upper management really wants the project
to get done

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Qualitative Models
Mandates
Generated from vendors, government agencies,
industry sectors, or markets

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Quantitative Models
Financial considerations are often an
important factor in selecting projects but not
always!
Four primary methods for determining the
estimated financial value of projects:
Net present value (NPV) analysis
Return on investment (ROI)
Payback analysis
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
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Stakeholder Analysis Process
1. Identify all potential stakeholders
2. Determine interests, expectations, and
influence for each
3. Build a stakeholder assessment matrix (see
Figure 4-5)
4. Analyze appropriate stakeholder approach
strategies and update the matrix
5. Update throughout the project

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Stakeholder Assessment Matrix

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Project Charter
Is the first tangible work product created in all projects,
regardless of size and type
After deciding what projects to work on, it is important
to formalize the project start
A project charter is a document (legal) which formally
authorizes the work to begin on a project and provides
an overview of objectives and resource requirements
Key project stakeholders should sign a project charter
to acknowledge agreement on the need and intent of
the project
First project artifact placed under change control.
Should define Project Managers level of authority
and responsibility
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Project Charter Best Practices
Should not be created in isolation
It is not a novel, keep it short and to the point
Implementing an entire ERP application can be
summarized in a project charter in 3 or 4 pages
max
Tough to get stakeholder buy-in and
understanding when the charter is 20 plus pages

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Summary of Process Steps
1. Project sponsors prepare the business case
2. Review potential project business cases
3. Review current business climate
4. Build the weighted scoring model
5. Review available resources
6. Select projects and assign project managers
7. Conduct stakeholder analysis
8. Create Project Charter
9. Obtain Project Charter buy-in obtain signatures
10. Conduct Kick-off meeting

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Chapter Five
Project Scope and Human Resources
Planning

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Integration Management KA
Develop the Project Management Plan
Process: taking the artifacts created in each of
the other eight Knowledge areas and putting
them into a consistent, coherent document
the project plan
Telling the team What to do
The text will spend several chapters describing
the elements of the project plan!

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Build the Project Plan
Scope management plan (Chapter 5)
Work breakdown structure (WBS) (Chapter 5)
WBS dictionary (Chapter 5)
Staffing management plan (Chapter 5)
Schedule management plan (Chapter 6)
Cost management plan (Chapter 6)
Quality management plan (Chapter 7)
Process improvement plan (Chapter 7)
Communication management plan (Chapter 7)
Risk management plan (Chapter 8)
Procurement management plan (Chapter 9)

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Project Plan Development
A project plan is a document used to coordinate
all project planning documents
Its main purpose is to guide project execution
Project plans assist the project manager in
leading the project team and assessing project
status
Project performance should be measured against
a baseline project plan
Building the plan should not be done in secret or
in isolation; the whole project team needs to
participate

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Attributes of Project Plans
Just as projects are unique, so are project plans
Plans should be dynamic
Plans should be flexible
Plans should be updated as changes occur
(Integrated Change Control)
Plans should first and foremost guide project
execution
Plans should never assume the team will work
overtime, at least not at the start
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Project Plan Creation
Most expensive project mistakes are made
during planning. McConnell (1998) states that
errors found upstream during the planning
phase cost on the order of 200 times less to fix
than errors found downstream during the
building of the product
Planning forecasting seeing into the future
is not an easy task

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What Is Project Scope Management?
Scope - refers to all (100%) the work involved in
creating the products of the project and the
processes used to create them
A Deliverable - is a product produced as part of
a project, such as hardware or software,
planning documents, or meeting minutes
Project scope management includes the
processes involved in defining and controlling
what is or is not included in a project

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3 key Deliverables
1. Scope statement
2. Scope management plan
3. Work breakdown structure (WBS)

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Scope Planning
The scope management plan describes how the
project team will define the scope, develop the
detailed scope statement, define and develop the
work breakdown structure (WBS), verify the scope,
and control the scope
A scope statement describes the characteristics of
the product that the project was created to deliver.
It should include the following information:
a project justification
a brief description of the projects products
a summary of all project deliverables
a statement of what determines project success user
acceptance criteria

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Scope Definition
Is accomplished by conducting a requirements
discovery and analysis exercise, the use of
subject matter experts, and a stakeholder
analysis
Requirements Discovery
Interviews
History documents
Research
PIECES (Performance, Information, Economics,
Control, Efficiency, Service)
Other means
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Requirements Documentation
Functional and nonfunctional system
requirements
Business rules
Impacts on any other systems and/or
departments
Support and training requirements
Specific acceptance criteria for each
requirement or set of requirements
Quality requirements
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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
After completing scope planning, the next step is to
further define the work by breaking it into
manageable pieces Systems Analysis
Good scope definition:
helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and
resource estimates
defines a baseline for performance measurement
and project control
aids in communicating clear work responsibilities

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WBS
A WBS is an outcome oriented list of tasks
executed by the project team to accomplish
stated project objectives
It is a foundation document that provides the
basis for planning and managing project
schedules, costs, and changes

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Building the WBS
Using guidelines: Some organizations, like the DOD,
provide guidelines/requirements for preparing a WBS
The analogy approach: A WBS is first created by
looking for a similar project done in the past and using
its WBS as a starting point
The top-down approach: Start with the largest items of
the project and keep breaking them down into smaller
and smaller parts
The bottoms-up approach: Start with the detailed
tasks and roll them up
Thread concentrate on most important items first

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Which Method to Choose?
The existence of a similar project would lead
you to the analogy approach which if done
correctly is the fastest and most accurate method
Experience level of the project manager and team
if little experience, choose the top-down
approach, conversely if many years of experience
then choose a bottom-up approach
Uniqueness of the product or process if the
product or process is very unique, never anything
like it before in this company or by this team then
choose the top-down approach

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WBS Structure
Product (sub-part) Order
Process phase Order
Outline Format

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WBS Organized by Product Part

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WBS by Process Phase

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Basic Principles for Creating a WBS
the WBS represents 100% of the work
required to produce the product
As soon as you define more than 100% of the
scope, you have committed to doing more than
you agreed to - scope creep has begun (100%
Rule)
Each WBS element represents a single
deliverable
Each deliverable is distinct
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Basic Principles for Creating a WBS
Accountability for each task can be assigned to
one team member
Not all elements of the WBS need to be
decomposed to the same depth
Have all reporting and control mechanisms
been included
Be prepared for changes

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WBS Dictionary
Control accounts accounting or finance
department assigned account codes used in the
accounting system to track costs
Statement of work describing the details of the
work involved in creating each deliverable
Responsible organization who is responsible for
each deliverable
Schedule for major milestones
Contract information if outside vendor involved
Quality requirements
Estimate of cost and resources required

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HR Management Questions?
How to assign the right tasks to the right
person?
How to motivate the team to perform at peak
performance with the highest quality?
How to obtain the needed power and
authority to manage the entire project?

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HR Planning Process
Identifying and documenting project roles,
responsibilities, and reporting relationships
Important areas of research/study related to
project management include:
Motivation
Influence and power
Effectiveness
Matching of resources to task

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Abraham Maslow - Motivation
Recognized as the first to identify a prioritized
hierarchy of needs that workers possess which
motivates them to do their best work
Instinctual need to make the most of
our unique abilities
Self respect, reputation, recognition,
self-confidence
Love, belonging, togetherness,
approval, group inclusion, friendship
Economic security, protection from
harm, secure employment
Breathe, food water, clothing, shelter,
sleep

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McGregor Leadership Styles
The work of Douglas McGregor is helpful to the project
manager in understanding how to approach workers with an
appropriate leadership style
Two leadership styles: theory X and theory Y
Theory X workers are inherently lazy and require direct
supervision on a constant basis authoritarian approach
to managing using punishment as the primary motivator
Theory Y workers enjoy work and can be trusted to work
efficiently without direct supervision participative style
approach to managing with group decision making

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McGregor
Workers come in many forms, some lean
toward theory X and some toward theory Y
and everything in between
Workers will also change over time based on
life circumstances
PM leadership style must be adaptive

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Herzberg
Frederick Herzberg found that the factors causing job
satisfaction (implying motivation) were different from
that causing job dissatisfaction
Hygiene factors (physiological, safety, and social)
If present didnt motivate employees to perform better but
if missing created job dissatisfaction and became de-
motivators
Motivation factors (esteem and self actualization)
If workers experienced these items they tended to be
satisfied, happier, and more productive

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Summary of Herzbergs Research
Leading to Dissatisfaction Leading to Satisfaction

Supervision Recognition

Company Policies Work itself

Relationship with supervisor Achievement

Work conditions Responsibility

Relationship with peers Growth in and outside of the job

Salary Advancement

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Best Practices
Taking the time to know each individual one-on-one
Keep and communicate a positive attitude about the
project, the team, and the company
Assign the appropriate level of work to each worker
Communicate often and openly
Make each worker feel appreciated for their particular
contribution to the project
Make sure each worker has the proper training needed
and desired
Reward members of the team fairly and consistently

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Chapter Six
Project Time and Cost Planning

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Time Robbers
Those activities that at first seem to be short and
unobtrusive but when they are all added together can
completely fill an entire work day
Task rework Waiting on people
Telephone calls, e-mail Day-to-day
Land mail administration
Incomplete work Too many levels of
Lack of needed authority review
Inefficient change Casual office
procedures conversations
Poorly run meetings

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Project Time Management Processes
Project time management describes the
processes and methods required to create and
manage appropriate schedules to complete
the project:
Activity Definition identifies the lowest level of
work on the WBS, work packages, that needs to
be performed to create the finished product
deliverable
Activity Sequencing identifying and
documenting the logical and sometimes physical
relationships among schedule activities
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Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
Also called activity-on-arrow (AOA) project
network diagram
Activities are represented by lines with arrows
Nodes or circles are the starting and ending
points of activities
Key Drawback: Can only show finish-to-start
dependencies

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Sample Activity-on-Arrow (AOA)
Network Diagram

Lines with arrows represent tasks


Circles with words or numbers represent the
begin or end of a task
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Process for Creating AOA Diagrams
1. You draw the first Begin circle or node and then proceed
with the tasks that do not have a predecessor, usually the
first tasks to be done on the project. These are shown in
the diagram as lines A, K, and F
2. Then you move to the next tasks listed in the WBS in order
of precedence. Activity B has a predecessor of A and
Activity C has a predecessor of B and so on. Tasks M, G,
and L have no successors so we draw their arrows to the
End node
3. You add circles at the end of each arrow as an end point.
At the end of the process you then number each circle
4. Be prepared as you draw this diagram to draw and then
erase and redraw as you work your way down the task list
5. You may need to add dummy activities to complete the
diagram

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Task Sizing Lines of Code
Has been one of the most used methods
Based on historical results
Effort, dollars, documentation, software bugs, and
number of resources
Advantages
Can be very quick and inexpensive to generate
Can be done early in the process
Universal metric
Can be generated easily, in most environments
automatically
Facilitate a lessons-learned process

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Lines of Code - Disadvantages
Must compensate for technology differences
Cant be done well unless relevant history exists
Must determine what counts as a line of code
What level of resource is generating the code
No industry standards
Need to distinguish between auto-generated
code and original work
Needs to be continually updated

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Function Points
used to estimate time and dollars based on
the generated system requirements
specification
A function point measures the size of a
business function that the new system needs
to have such as an input screen or a report
Function Point analysis can be done at any
point in the project but are not considered
accurate until late in the planning phase

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PERT
The Program Evaluation and Review Technique
(PERT) was developed by the U.S. Navy in
cooperation with the consulting firm Booz-
Allen Hamilton for the Polaris
missile/submarine project in 1958 to help
organize the activities of 11,000+ contractors

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PERT
Uses a weighted average approach or beta
probability distribution to capture the three
point estimates discussed in previous lecture
(optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic) for
activity duration
The PERT weighted averages for each activity
are added to the network diagram to show
the start dates and finish dates for each and
the final project end date
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Critical Path Method (CPM)
CPM uses the sequence and duration of
activities to determine the total project
duration
A critical path for a project is the series of
activities that determines the earliest time by
which the project can be completed

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Slack
The difference between the earliest time an
activity can begin and the latest time an
activity can begin without changing the
completion date of the project
In most projects of any size, there is typically
only one critical path which means that all of
the other paths have tasks with slack but
theoretically a project can have multiple
critical paths

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Free Slack
The difference between the earliest time an
activity can begin and the latest time an
activity can begin without changing the
completion date of any successor task

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Methods to Find the Critical Path
1. Calculate slack for each activity on the WBS
using a network diagram, or
2. Find the longest path through the network
diagram

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Find the Critical Path
D (2,7) G (7,9)
1 3 6
5 (2,7) 2 (7,9)
K(9,18)
A (0,2) E (2,3)
1(5,6) H (4,7) 9 (9,18)
(0,2) (6,9)
2 B (0,4) 3 L(18,22)
I(4,12) 7 End
Begin 4
4 (2,6) 8 (10,18) 4 (18,22)
C (0,5)
5(3,8) J (12,15)
F (5,12)
2 5 3(15,18)
7 (8,15)

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Find Critical Path Calculating Slack
The calculation is performed for each activity in two
passes through the entire network diagram for each
path.
The first pass through starts at the begin node and moves
to the end node through each path calculating the ES and
EF.
The second pass through starts at the end node and moves
to the beginning node through each path calculating LS an
LF
Those activities with zero slack are on the
critical path
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Chapter Seven
Project Quality and Communications
Planning

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What Is Project Quality Management?
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
definition: the totality of features and
characteristics of a product or service that bears on
its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs
The American Society for Quality and the PMBOK
define quality as the degree to which a set of
inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.
Text: the degree to which the product satisfies both
stated and implied requirements

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Triple Constraint Plus Quality
Can be inflated for more quality or deflated for
less quality.

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ISO Quality Management Principles
Customer Focus
Provide Leadership
Involvement of People
Use a Process Approach

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ISO Quality Management Principles
Take a Systems Approach
Encourage Continual
Factual Approach to Decision Making
Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

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Quality Management Planning Process
Quality planning: identifying which quality
standards are relevant to the project and
organization and determining the activities
necessary to meet the established standards
in order to deliver the product fit for customer
use

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Find the Longest Path

Path 1 = A, D, G, K, L = 22 days
Path 2 = A, E, H, K, L = 19
Path 3 = A, E, I, L = 15
Path 4 = B, H, K, L = 20
Path 5 = B, I, L = 16
Path 6 = C, F, J, L = 19

Path A,D,G,K,L is the critical path duration is longest

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Techniques for Shortening a Project
Schedule (Schedule Analysis)
Knowing the critical path helps you make
schedule trade-offs
Shortening durations of critical tasks by adding
more resources or changing their scope
Crashing tasks by obtaining the greatest amount
of schedule compression for the least
incremental cost
Fast tracking tasks by doing them in parallel or
overlapping them

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