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Introducing Agile

Processes into a
Waterfall Organisation
Chris Cooper-Bland, Senior
Architect @ Endava Ltd
Agenda
What is Agile Refresher
What makes Organisations Waterfall?
Introducing Change
Change the process
Change the Organisation
What works
Summary and Q&A
How many of your organisations are using agile currently?
How many are planning to?

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Delivering business value is
hard
Of the work executed: Many
(possibly most) organisations lose as
much as 45% of their total revenues
due to costs associated with low
quality
Six Sigma

Some 75 percent of most large-scale


J2EE projects fail by missing both time
and budget projections
Mark Driver, Gartner

64% of features actually delivered are


either rarely or never used
Jim Johnson, Standish Group
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Brief History of Development
Methodologies
AGILE e.g. XP
(Kent Beck)
Methodologies
RUP (Rational) user
Incremental,
driven, low process
RAD Object oriented,
(James Martin)iterative, time-boxed,
user driven
Prototyping, RUP
iterative, time-boxed,
SPIRAL MODEL user driven RAD
WATERFALL (Royce) (Barry Boehm)
V-MODEL (Anon)
Requirements, design Iterative Spiral Model
implementation, Aligns testing to
verification & Waterfall
maintenance development V-Model
Waterfall

1960 1970 1980 85 91 98 99

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Agile Misconceptions?
Agile means: letting the programming team do whatever they need to
with no project management, and no architecture, allowing a solution to
emerge, the programmers will do all the testing necessary with Unit
Tests

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What is Agile?
http://www.agilemanifesto.org/
We are uncovering better ways of developing
software by doing it and helping others do it.
Through this work we have come to value:

Individuals and interactions over processes and tools


Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan

That is, while there is value in the items on


the right, we value the items on the left more.
Management can tend to value the things on the
right over the things on the6 left
Agile project management -
SCRUM Daily Scrum Meeting:
15 minutes
Team-Level Each teams member answers 3
questions:
Planning Every 24hrs 1) What did I do since last meeting?
2) What obstacles are in my way?
3) What will I do before next meeting?

Every Iteration
4-6 weeks
Working
Prioritised
Software
Iteration
Delivered
Scope Requirements

Requirements
Prioritised Requirements
Requirements & Features Backlog
Requirements
Requirements
Applying Agile: 7
Continuous integration; continuously monitored progress
Agile - XP explained (1)
The Values
Communication
Simplicity
Feedback
Courage
Respect (added in the latest version)

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Agile - XP explained (2)
1. Test First Programming 7. Refactoring Restructuring code
Test First without code without changing its functionality
2. The Planning Game - Mainly Simplification
- Business Stories 8. Pair Programming
- Customer decides, Prog. 9. Collective Code Ownership
Implements 10. Coding Standards
3. Small, Frequent Releases - Everyone should use the same
- Release early and release often coding styles.
4. Always use the Simplest design that 11. Continuous Integration
adds business value - At least a few times a day
5. System Metaphor - All unit tests must pass prior to
- Programmers define a handful of integration
classes and patterns that shape the - All functional tests must pass
core business problem and solution afterwards
- Like a primitive Architecture 12. Forty Hour Week !
6. On-site Customer - Tired programmers write poor code
- Customer has authority to define and make more mistakes
functionality
- encourages face-to-face dialogue
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Water Fall Organisations
Accounting system annual
accounts, monthly returns
Legal and regulatory
controls
Shareholders 3 year
plans, annual plans
Interface with other
organisations
SLAs
Reward System, annual
event not immediate

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Random Example

11 From Northern Constabulary


Approach to Change
Models to introduce change into
the organisation
Incremental approach
Step change
Thin threads
Scope of change island or
wholesale
Prerequisites for change
Blockers & enablers - timing
Key influencers
Other changes
Disasters

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What to change Best
Practices
Most Useful

Collaborative working
Iterative projects
Visual Modelling
Risk based prioritisation
Requirements Management
Change Management
Configuration Management
Tools
Traceability
Least Useful
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Factors for Success
Choose the right project


Size
Importance
visibility
Get buy-in of senior
management
Communicate to all
Use experienced people
Common sense
Dont trust blindly no silver bullets

(process)
effort = people * environment *size
- Walker Royce
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Changing the process -
Integrating the method
Advantages
Single place to look
Easy alignment
People already understand parts
Disadvantages
May lead to confusion
External staff dont know it
Overlaps and/or gaps

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Customising the method
Standard Method
specification
Industry
Level
Industry Standards. (e.g. Industry Methods development
ISO 12207,SW-CMM) (e.g. Iterative, Agile)

Project Assurance Organisations Software


(monitoring adherence to Engineering group
process and feedback for
Software process improvement)
Macro-level tailoring
Organisational
Level Organisational Tailoring of Method

Micro-level tailoring

Project Project defined process documented


Level in some form

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Changing the organisation
People
Team rewards
Celebrate success
Leadership management must ask the right questions
Communication, brown bags etc.
Understand perceptions of success, what does finished mean?
Quality/stage gates
Senior Management control
Estimating and budgeting
Real options
Portfolio planning
Structure of the organisation

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Estimating
This will prove problematic
Identify an approach early, keep reviewing it
Ideal model is to use a model calibrated with the
actuals captured from your organisation, but .
Use model with someone else's metrics
Use Industry model
CoComo II
Function point analysis
Guess
Planning game is usually too late to help

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The Budgeting Problem
The Cone of Uncertainty

Source McConnell 1998


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Addressing it
Convince management to make a fixed investment to establish costs

Source McConnell 1998


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Application Project Portfolios
Senior management
must give authority and Programme portfolio
management

control to IT
Use a portfolio
management approach
Define portfolio Proven proof of

segments Concepts

Apportion available
budget Stage gate 3

Revalidate at stage Stage gate 2

Stage gate 1
gates, for balance and
progress
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Real Options a way of
thinking
Based on commodity
options right but not an
obligation to buy at a point
in the future
Investment is continued
only in favourable
conditions, use probability
models to predict future
likelihood of return
Can hedge different
investments
Allows management to be
in control
Share holders like it

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Structure Skunk Works
Lockhead Martin needed to
develop secret projects,
outside formal control
Formed in June 1943
Burbank CA
14 rules to ensure efficiency
similar to XP principles
Now seen as technique for
introducing change but

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Structure - Radical Changes
Change the company
structure of the XP
organisation No Change
Agility
Create new spin-off required
company
Joint venture
Acquisition Waterfall
Change the internal
structure Bureaucracy Dynamic
New ventures Existing Structure
department
New project teams
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Dont do this if you want to
fail
Use integrated teams
Sort out the development environment early
Choose tools carefully
Enterprise architecture is important for
large/long lived systems
One person needs to own the process vision
with support from many
Use partners experienced in the method
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What Works Well
Configuration and change management,
continuous integration
Selling the method
Books, presentations etc.
Immersion for the project
Briefings for the rest of the company
Make them want it too

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Summary
The organisation will have to change too
More you have to change the harder it is

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Resources
Craig Larmans books
http://www.bcs-spa.org/
http://www.dsdm.org/
http://www.real-
options.com/

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Conclusion & Questions

Contact Details
Chris Cooper-Bland
Senior Architect
Chris.cooper-
bland@endava.com

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