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# EXERCISE-1

## 1 cw = 3.0 10-6 / psi cf = 8.6 10-6 / psi Swc = .20

pi = 4000 psi Boi = 1.2417 rb/stb
pb = 3330 psi Bob = 1.2511 rb/stb
SOLUTION
To maintain pressure at 2700 psia the
total underground withdrawal at the
producing end of a reservoir block
must equal the water injection rate at
the injection end of the block.
The total withdrawal associated with
one STB of oil is:
Bo + (R Rs)Bg rb
AS, Bo + (R Rs)Bg rb
Evaluating at 2700 psia, using the PVT
data
1.2022 + (3000 401) 0.00107 = 4.0 rb
Thus to produce 10,000 stb/d oil, an
initial injection rate of 40,000 rb/d of
water will be required,
If the injection had been started at, or
above bubble point pressure, a maximum
injection rate of only 12,500 b/d of water
would have been required.
GO TO SLIDE 23
Example

## Example reservoir is under consideration for a waterflood project. The

volumetric calculations of the field indicate that the areal extent of the
field is 1612.6 acres. The field is characterized by the following
properties:
Thickness h = 25 f
Porosity = 15%
Initial water saturation Swi = 20%
Initial pressure pi = 2377 psi

## Oil production Np as a function of reservoir pressure p are

given below:
The PVT properties of the crude oil system are tabulated below:

## Assume that the water injection will commence

when the reservoir pressure declines to 1650 psi;
find the following:
Pressure that is required to dissolve the trapped
gas.
The required rate of water injection so as have
the production of 5000 bbl/dayt
Solution-Part -1
Step 1. Calculate initial oil in place N
N = 7758 A h (1 Swi)/Boi (22 MMSTB)
Step 2. Calculate remaining oil saturation at 1650 psi:

(So= 0.619)

## Step 4. Calculate the trapped gas saturation from Equation-1, to give

Sgt = 12.6%
Step 5. Calculate the gas solubility when all the trapped gas is dissolved in
the oil by applying Equation :
Step 6. Enter the tabulated PVT data with the new gas solubility of 814
scf/STB and find the corresponding pressure of approximately 2140 psi.
This pressure is identified as the pressure that is required to dissolve the
trapped gas.
Solution-Part -2
Step-1: Determine Rp at 1650 psia.

Gp = RpNp
Step-2:Fimnd total withdrawal associated at 1650 Psia:

## =Bo + (Rp Rs)Bg rb

=1.706 + (1050 657) x 0.00194
=2.46 rb or 2.5 rb
Thus the required rate will be 2.5 x 5000=12500bbl
Factors important in WI pressure
maintenance and water flooding:
1 Reservoir Geometry
2.Lithology
3.Reservoir depth.
4.Porosity
5.Permeability (Magnitude and variation)
6.Fluid properties and Relative permeability
Relationship.
7.Continuity of reservoir rock properties
8.Magnitude and distribution of fluid saturations.
Remarks
These factors influence ultimate recovery,
rate of return and ultimate economics.
Therefore the process along with these
Factors must be considered collectively
To evaluate economic feasibility .Factors
Like oil price , marketing conditions,
operating expenses and availability of water
also influence the implementation of WI/
Pressure maintenance
EXERCISE-1
Determine the fractional oil recovery, during
1
depletion down to bubble point pressure
cw = 3.0 10-6 / psi cf = 8.6 10-6 / psi Swc = .20
pi = 4000 psi Boi = 1.2417 rb/stb
pb = 3330 psi Bob = 1.2511 rb/stb
Step-1: SOLUTION
average compressibility of the under saturated oil
between initial and bubble point pressure:

Step-2:
The recovery at bubble point pressure can be
calculated as:
or 1.52% of the original oil in place
REMARKS
Considering that the 670 psi pressure drop
represents about 17% of the initial,
absolute pressure, the oil recovery is
extremely low. This is because the effective
compressibility is small providing the
reservoir contains just liquid oil and water.
The situation will, however, be quite
different once the pressure has fallen
below bubble point.
EXERCISE-2
Below bubble point pressure (saturated oil)
The reservoir described in exercise 1 will be
produced down to an abandonment pressure
of 900 psia. Determine
1. An expression for the recovery at
abandonment as a function of the
cumulative gas oil ratio Rp.
2. Derive an expression for the free gas
saturation in the reservoir at abandonment
pressure.
SOLUTION
Assuming m = 0; no initial gas cap, negligible
water influx and not considering the equivalent
compressibility effect, the recovery factor at
abandonment pressure of 900 psia is given as:
1

## in which all the PVT parameters Bo, Rs and Bg

are evaluated at the abandonment pressure.
Using the given data the recovery factor can be
expressed as:
2 Liberated gas
EXERCISE-3
WATER INJECTION BELOW BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE

## It is planned to initiate a water injection in

the reservoir whose PVT properties are
defined in table of Exercise-1. The
intention is to maintain pressure at the
level of 2700psia (pb = 3330 psia). If the
current producing gas oil ratio of the field
(R) is 3000 scf/stb, what will be the initial
water injection rate required to produce
10,000 stb/d of oil.
SOLUTION
To maintain pressure at 2700 psia the total
underground withdrawal at the producing end of a
reservoir block must equal the water injection rate
at the injection end of the block.
The total withdrawal associated with 1 stb of oil
is:
Bo + (R Rs)Bg rb
Evaluating at 2700 psia, using the PVT data
1.2022 + (3000 401) 0.00107 = 4.0 rb
to produce 10,000 stb/d oil, an initial injection
rate of 40,000 rb/d of water will be required,
If the injection had been started at, or above bubble point
pressure, a maximum injection rate of only 12,500 b/d of water
would have been required.
Exercise-1
It is planned to initiate water injection scheme in the
reservoir as per the PVT properties given in
The table below.
Intention is to maintain pressure at least of 2700 psia
(Pb=3330psia)
If the current producing GOR of the field
is3000scf/stb.
Calculate what will be the initial water injection rate
required to produce 10,000stb/d of oil.
Essentiality

## To maintain pressure (say 2700psi)

Total underground withdrawal rate from the producing end of a
reservoir rock must be equal to water injection rate at the injection
end.
The total withdrawal associated with each(1) rb of oil is given as:
B o + ( R p - Rs ) B g rb
Exercise-2-PVT PROPERTIES

Pressure Bo Rs Bg
[psia] [[rb/stb] [scf/stb] [rb/scf]
4000 1.2417 510
3500 1.2480 510
3330(Pb) 1.2511 510 0.00087
3000 1.2222 450 0.00096
2700 1.2022 401 0.00107
2400 1.1822 352 0.00119
2100 1.1633 304 0.00137
1800 1.1450 257 0.00161
1500 1.1287 214 0.00196
1200 1.1115 167 0.00249
900 1.0940 122 0.00339
600 1.0763 78 0.00519
300 1.0583 35 0.01065
Calculations
Evaluating @2700psi and using the data of PVT
provided earlier.
Bo + ( Rp - Rs ) Bgrb
1.2511 +510 x 0.00087 rb
= 4.0 rb
Thus the total withdrawal associated with
each(1) rb of oil, for a pressure of 2700psia is
4rb(four times)
Therefore to produce 10,000 stb/d oil, the initial
water injection rate should be 40000rb/d
Observations
(1) If the injection had been initiated at ,or above the
bubble point pressure, The requires injection rate for
water would have been 12500b/d.{10000x1.25(Bo)}
(2) Since the water injection is now at a pressure lower than
Pb a higher/additional injection rate of the order of
27500rb/d which amounts to{(27.5/40)x 100} =68.75%
70%of injection rate will be needed to displace the
liberated gas.
Application of PVT Studies
p. Bo. R p.
A That yields oil recovery up to bubble point pressure as
.0189STB
B OIL Recovery per unit STB of Oil (initial OIP) below
bubble point pressure.
1
That yields oil recovery @1700 psi= 0.027 STB
2 That yields oil recovery @1600psi = 0.048 STB

## The oil saturation in the reservoir at this pressure So

below bubble point pressure
=0.765
The Gas saturation in the reservoir at this pressure Sg=
below bubble point pressure
0.035
PVT Studies
Differential liberation analysis of BHS @125F
Pressure Bo Bg Solution Bt
psig bbl/STB bbl/SCF GOR bbl/STB
SCF/STB
3100P i
1.4235 - 885 1.4235 Boi
2800 1.4290 - le 885 1.4290
p
2400 1.4370 - am 885 1.4370
Ex
2000 1.4446 - Produced GOR 885 1.4446
1725P 1.4509 - 885 1.4509 Bob
b

## 1700 1.4468 0.00141 876 1.4595

1600 1.4303 0.00151 842 1.4952
1500 1.4139 0.00162 807 1.5403
1400 1.3978 0.00174 772 1.5444
Example

Vital data:
(1) Initial reservoir pressure(@4300ftsubsea) 3100
(2) Bubble point pressure (@4300ftsubsea) 1725
(3) Average reservoir temperature 125F
(4) Average porosity 7.7%
(5) Average connate water 20%
(6) Critical gas saturation 10%
Example- Performance Prediction
Up to bubble point pressure, recovery is by expansion
of oil
When pressure falls from Pi=3112 to pb=1725

## Np Bo Boi 1.4509 1.4235

0.0189
N Bo 1.4509
i.e. for N=1 STB of oil, Np = 0.0189 STB
ESSENTIALITIES

## For P > Pb, the produced gas-oil-ratio at the surface

separator can be regarded as 885 SCF/STB, the initial
solution GOR
At P<P b, free gas phase develops.
Assumption: Free gas saturation is less than critical gas
saturation or gas remains immobile
At P=1700 psi
Average producing GOR between two consecutive
pressures P1(1725) and P2(1700)

## Rso1 Rso 2 885+876

Ravg =
2 2
Rave = 880.5 SCF/STB and
Npb =0.0189 (as determined earlier)
Let Np1 to be determined
STEP-1 :
To calculate Rp based on cumulative production up to P = 1700psia
STEP-2 :
To calculate Np1 using Material balance Equation
The calculation of Rp based on cumulative
production up to P=1700 psia (on an
volume weighted basis) is:

0.085 880.5 N p1
Rp
N p1
The determined Rp is then substituted in MBE

0.085 880.5 N p1
Rp
N p1
Substituting in material balance equation
N p1 ( Bo ( R p Rs ) Bg ) N ( Bo Boi ) ( Rsi Rs ) Bg

0.00012 1.2415 N p1
N p1 (0.21164 ) N 0.03599
N p1
Setting N to one and solving for Np results
that for each STB of initial oil in place we
produce
Np1=0.0247 STB(2.47%)
To cont. prediction: At P= 1600 psig
Material balance envisages:
(Release of dissolved gas)

## Rsoi N pb Ravg1 ( N p1 N pb ) Ravg 2 ( N p 2 N p1 )

Rp
N pb ( N p1 N pb ) ( N p 2 N p1 )
Where 876 842 SCF/STB
Ravg 2 859
2

## Therefore 0.6161 859 N p 2

Rp
N p2
From the material balance
0.00093 1.297 N p 2
N p 2 (0.1589 ) N 0.07173
Which means N p2

## Np2 = 0.0486 STB

for every 1 STB of initial OIP
The oil saturation in the reservoir at this
pressure:

( N N p 2 ) Bo ( N N p 2 ) Bo
So 0.765
PV N Boi
(1 S )
wc
Oil Saturation:
So 0.765
Gas Saturation:

S g 1 0.765 S wc 0.035
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION

Flat
Curve
due to
Gas
Rapid Expan.
Decline
Down to Pb
The said reservoir has an areal extent of 40 acres and the
net formation thickness is 200 feet :

Constant x, Axxh(1-Swi)
N=
Boi
40 7758 200 0.077 (1 0.2)
N 2.69 MMSTB
1.4235
If the reservoir is produced at 92 BOPD, time to produce
11.35%(refer graph) of initial reserves :

6
2.69 10 0.1135
t 9.08 years
92 365
Performance Prediction
with compressibility effects
cw = 3 x 10-6 psi-1
c = 5 x
For pressure
f 10 -6
psi-1from 3112 psig to 1725 psig:
drop
(up to bubble point)
STEP-1: B o B oi
CalculateCo co 1.39 105 psi 1
B oi Dp
STEP-2: Apply Np

co So c f cw S wc Boi Dp
0.0284
MBE
N (1 S wc ) Bo

## (compared to 0.0189 without compressibility)

Recovery@1700psig

## When pressure drops to 1700 psig, we have

already seen that :
0.085 880.5 N p1
Rp
N p1
Applying MBE
Substituting in material balance relationship
( Bo Boi ) ( Rsi Rs ) Bg

Boi
N p1 ( Bo ( R p Rs ) Bg ) N Boi
c f cw S wc

(1 S ) Dp
wc
Dp p i p 3112 1700
=1412
Substituting numbers :

0.00012 1.2415 N p1
N p1 (0.21164 ) N 0.05
N p1
Which means Np1 = 0.034 STB for every STB of
initial oil in place

## (compared to 0.024 STB without

compressibility effects)
Let pwf represent the maintained bottom-hole described by Darcys equation
flowing pressure at the wellbore radius rw and pe
denote the external pressure at the external or
drainage radius, Darcys equation as described
can be used to determine the flow rate at any

## Radial flow model At any point in the reservoir the

cross-sectional area across which
flow occurs will be the surface area of
a cylinder,
which is 2rh or

## Minus sign is no longer required for the

radial system as the radius increases in
the same direction as the pressure.
The flow rate for a crude oil system is customarily
expressed in surface units, i.e., stock-tank barrels
(STB), rather than reservoir units.
Using the symbol Qo to represent the oil flow as
expressed in STB/day, then:

q =flow
The Bo Qrate
o inwhere Bo is the oil formation volume factor bbl/STB
Darcys equation can be expressed in
STB/day to give:
Integrating the above equation between two radii, r1
and r2, when the pressures are p1 and p2 yields:

## For incompressible system in a uniform formation :

On integration it yields :
If the two radii of interest are the wellbore radius rw
and the external or drainage radius re.
Then

## As the external (drainage) radius re is usually

determined from the well spacing by equating the
area of the well spacing with that of a circle, i.e.
where A is the well spacing in acres r 2
e=
43,560 A

Neither the external radius nor the wellbore radius is generally known with precision.
Fortunately, they enter the equation as a logarithm, so that the error in the equation
will be less than the errors in the radii.
Pressure Oil Flow Rate
Where:
The equation:

## The equation is used calculate the pressure profile

(distribution) and list the pressure drop across various
intervals
Example
An oil well is producing at a stabilized rate of 600 STB/day
at a stabilized bottom-hole flowing pressure of 1800 psi.
The pay zone is characterized by a permeability of 120 md
and a uniform thickness of 25ft.
The well drains an area of approximately 40 acres.
Calculate the pressure profile (distribution) and list the
pressure drop across 1 f intervals from rw to 1.25 f, 4 to
5 f, 19 to 20 f, 99 to 100 f, and
744 to 745 f.
The following additional data is available:
rw = 0.25 ft A = 40 acres
Bo = 1.25 bbl/STB o = 2.5 cp
STEP -1 solution
Rearrange and solve for pressure p at radius r

As
In the present case:

STEP -2

## Calculate the pressure at the specified

Pressure profile around the wellbore.
OIL SATURATION

or

## If the reservoir has produced Np stock-tank barrels of oil, the

remaining oil volume is given by:
remaining oil volume = (N Np) Bo
Therefore

or

GAS SATURATION

Sg = 1 So Swi
Example
Calculate the initial gas in place and the initial
reserve of a gas reservoir from the pressure
production data for a volumetric reservoir.
Initial Pressure=3250 psia
Reservoir Temperature=213F
Standard Pressure=15.025 psia
Standard Temperature=60F
Cumulative production= 1.00 x 109 SCF
Average reservoir pressure=2864 psia
Abandonment pressure = 500 psia
Gas deviation Factor at 3250 psia= 0.910
Gas deviation Factor at 2864 psia= 0.888
Gas deviation Factor at 500 psia = 0.951
STEP-1
Calculate reservoir gas pore volume Vi (using cum gas/
production and pressure details)

## {( 15.025 x 1.00 x 109 x )/520}

= {(3250 x Vi )/(0.910 x673)} {(2864 x Vi)/(0.888 x
673)}
STEP-2
= 56.17 MM
Calculate Cu ft gas in place G (at initial pressure)
the initial
G= (pi Vi / zi T ) x (Tsc / psc) = (pi Vi Tsc / zi T psc)
=(3250 x 56.17 x 106 x 520) / (0.910 x 673 x 15.025)
= 10.32 MMM SCF
STEP 3
Calculate gas remaining at500psia (Aband. Pressure)
Ga = (pa Vi / za T ) x (Tsc / psc)
=(500 x 56.17 x 106 x 520) / (0.951 x 673 x 15.025)
= 1.52 MMM SCF
As initial gas reserves based on a 500 psia
(Aband. Pressure) is the difference between the
initial gas in place and the gas remaining at 500
psia . Therefore gas reserve may be given as

Gr = G G a
= (10.32 1 52) x 10 9
= 8.80 MMM SCF
Example
Calculate the total daily gas production including the
water and condensate using the given data:
Daily separator Gas Production =3.25 MM SCF
Daily Stock Tank Condensate =53.2 STB
Daily Stock Tank Gas =10 M SCF
Daily Fresh Water Production =5.5 bbl*
Initial reservoir Pressure =4000 psia
Current Reservoir Pressure =1500 psia
Reservoir Temperature =220 F
Condensate Gravity = 55 API
(0.759 sp.gr.)
Use the Mol. Wt.(Mo) as 124 also Consider only 40%
water as Produced water.
(only 60% water need to be converted to gas equivalent)
solution
1
Daily Stock Tank Condensate =53.2 STB(Given)

## Gas Equivalent = 53.2 x 133000 x 0.759/124

= 43,000 SCF
If the standard conditions are 14.7 psia and 520R and the gas
2
constant,R,10.73:then the gas equivalent for water produced as
condensate is: 7390 scf/stb of water
Gas Equivalent (water)= 3.25 x 7390
= 24000 SCF

## The Daily Gas Production ( GP )

GP = 3250.0 M +10.0 M + 43.0 M + 24.0 M
= 3.327 MM SCF