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Circulatory System

Body in Action - Yr 10
Circulatory System
is the transport system of the body
carries food and oxygen to the cells and
removes waste products

Consists of the following structures/systems;

Heart (Cardiovascular system)
Lungs (Respiratory system)
Blood, blood flow & blood vessels
Gases exhcange and the mechanics of breathing

Components of Blood
Red Blood Cells -
carry oxygen with the
Red Blood Cells chemical

White Blood Cells -

fight disease and
White Blood cells infection
Components of Blood
Platelets - clot the

Plasma - fluid
Platelets component that
contains water,
nutrients, waste
products and

Blood Plasma
Blood Vessels

Arteries - thick muscular wall, carry

blood away from heart, carry
oxygenated blood (except pulmonary
artery), branches into smaller
Blood Vessels
Veins - thin walled, carry blood back to the
heart, carry deoxygenated blood (except
for pulmonary vein), originates from
smaller venules and contains valves.

Blood Vessels

Capillaries - smallest
blood vessels (one cell
thick) allows oxygen,
carbon dioxide,
nutrients, wastes and
hormones to pass to
and from cells.
Blood Vessels

Varicose Veins
Varicose veins are
abnormally swollen and
tortuous veins, often visible
just beneath the skin.
Varicose Veins
What is it:
To return blood to your heart, the veins in your legs must work against

Muscle contractions in your lower legs act as pumps, and elastic vein walls
help blood return to your heart. Tiny valves in your veins open as blood
flows toward your heart then close to stop blood from flowing backward.

Causes of varicose veins can include:

Age. As you get older, your veins can lose elasticity, causing them to
stretch. The valves in your veins may become weak, allowing blood that
should be moving toward your heart to flow backward.

Blood pools in your veins, and your veins enlarge and become varicose.

Pregnancy. Some pregnant women develop varicose veins. Pregnancy

increases the volume of blood in your body, but decreases the flow of
blood from your legs to your pelvis
Blood Pressure
Pressure exerted on the walls of the blood
vessels by the blood.
Represented as a fraction
120 = Systole - when heart contracts
80 = Diastole - when heart relaxed
Hypertension is high blood pressure
any reading above 140/90
Heart Structure &
Function: To pump oxygenated blood and
nutrients around the body
heart is actually two pumps
right side pumps blood to lungs -
pulmonary circulation
left side pumps blood to the body -
systemic circulation
Heart Structure &
Right side Left side
Pulmonary Systemic
Circuit Circuit
Heart Rate
Pulse can be felt at a number of arterial sites - most
common Carotid (neck) and Radial (wrist).
Average resting HR between 60 and 80 beats per
Cardiac Output - amount of blood pumped by heart
per minute (Q=SVXHR)
Stroke Volume - amount of blood pumped per beat
HR affected by exercise,age, smoking, drugs, fear
and excitement.
vena cava pulmonary

right pulmonary
atrium vein

right ventricle

inferior septum
vena cava
Red = oxygenated Blue = deoxygenated