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HighwayConstruction&Maintenance

Lecture II
Contents
ConstructionofEarthRoads
ConstructionofWaterBoundMacadamRoads
BituminousPavements
BituminousConstructionProcedures
CementConcretePavements
ConstructionofEarthRoads
Cheapesttypeofroadfromnaturalsoil

Dependsontypeofsoilavailableatsite

Steepcamber 1in20to1in33

MaximumCrossslope 1in20

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MaterialSpecifications
BaseCourse WearingCourse

ClayContent <5% 10%18%

SiltContent 9%32% 5%15%

SandContent 60%80% 65%80%

LiquidLimit <35% <35%

PlasticityIndex <6% 4%10%

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ConstructionProcedure
Material
Location FixingC/L
SubgradePreparation
SiteClearing
Excavationandconstructionoffills
Shapingthesubgrade
PavementConstruction mixedsoilisspreadout
inlayersandcompactedwithcompactedthickness
notexceeding10cm.
Desirabletohaveatleast95%DryDensity
OpeningtoTraffic
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ConstructionofWaterBound
MacadamRoads
Macadam pavementbasecoursemadeof
crushedorbrokenaggregatemechanically
interlockedbyrollingandvoidsfilledwith
screeningandbindingmaterialwiththe
assistanceofwater
Maybeusedassubbase,basecourseor
surfacingcourse
Thicknessofeachlayer 10to7.5cmdepending
onsizeandgradationofaggregatesused
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MaterialSpecifications
CoarseAggregates crushedaggregatesor
brokenstones
Shouldbehard,durable,acceptableshape,
freefromflakyandelongatedparticles
Property RequirementsforPavementlayer
Subbase BaseCourse SurfaceCourse
LosAngelesAbrasion 60 50 40
value(%)
AggregateImpact 50 40 30
value(%)
FlakinessIndex(%) 15 15
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MaterialSpecifications
Screenings

Usedtofillupthevoidsincompactedlayerof
coarseaggregates
Consistofsmallsizedcoarseaggregates
Nonplasticmaterialslikekankar,moorumetc
LL<20%,PI<6%&Proportionoffinespassing
0.075mm<10%

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MaterialSpecifications
BindingMaterial
Usedtopreventravellingofstone

Finegrainedmaterial kankar nodules,limedust

PI 4%9%inWBMsurfacecourseconstruction
&<6% WBMlayersasbasecourseandsubbase
course

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ConstructionProcedure
Preparationoffoundationforreceivingthe
WBMcourse
Maybeeithersubgradeorbaseorsubbase
course
Ifexistingsurfaceisabituminoussurface,furrows
ofdepth50mmandwidth50mmarecutat1m
intervalsandat450 toCLbeforelayingcoarse
aggregate

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ProvisionofLateralConfinement
Donebyconstructingtheshouldersforathickness
equaltothatofWBMlayerandtrimmingtheinner
sidesvertically
SpreadingofCoarseAggregates
WBMcourse compactedthicknessof7.5cm

Rolling
Compaction rollers startingfromedges
andthenshiftedtothecentre

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ApplicationofScreenings
Dryrolling

SprinklingandGrouting
Waterissprinkled,sweptandrolled
Additionalscreeningstillcoarseaggregatesarewell
bondedandfirmlyset

ApplicationofBindingMaterial
intwoormoresuccessivelayers
surfaceissprinkledwithwaterandrollingisdone

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BituminousPavements
Pavementlayers WearingCourse
Types
InterfaceTreatments primecoat&tackcoat
SurfaceDressingandSealCoat
Groutedorpenetrationtypeconstructions
penetrationmacadam,Built upSpraygrout
Premix Bituminousboundmacadam,carpet,
BituminousConcrete,SheetAsphaltorrolled
asphalt,MasticAsphalt
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InterfaceTreatment
Thinlayerofbituminousbinder toprovide
bondbetweenoldandnewlayers
PrimeCoat
Firstapplicationoflowviscosityliquidbituminous
materialoveranexistingporousoradsorbent
pavementmateriallikeWBMbasecourse
Objectiveistoplugthecapillaryvoidsandbond
loosematerialusingabinderoflowviscosity
Allowedtocureforatleast24hours
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TackCoat
Applicationofbituminousmaterialoveran
existingpavementsurfacethatisrelatively
impervious

Promotesbondbetweenoldandnewsurface

Binderdoesnotpenetrateintothelayer&
remainsatthesurface

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BituminousSurfaceDressing(BSD)
Thinfilmofbituminousbinderissprayedon
theroadsurfacecoveredbyacoatofmineral
aggregatesandrolled
Functions
Thinwearingcourseofpavementandprotect
basecourse
Waterproofthepavementsurfaceandprevent
surfacewaterinfiltration
Providedustfreesurfaceindryweatherandmud
freesurfaceinwetweather
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SealCoat
Topcoatoverperviousbituminouspavements
suchaspremixedcarpetandgrouted
macadam
Thinsurfacetreatmentorsinglecoatdressing
appliedoveranexistingblacktopsurface
Functions
Sealsurfacingagainstwateringress
Developskidresistanttexture

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Built upSprayGrout(BUSG)
Twolayercompositionofcompactedcrushed
aggregatesandapplicationofbinderafter
eachlayerforbondingandfinishedwith
aggregatesatthetop
TotalThickness 75mm
Suitableforstrengtheningofexisting
bituminouspavements
Wearingcourseisprovidedoverthislayer
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PenetrationMacadam
Usedasbinderorbasecourse

Coarseaggregatesarespreadandcompacted
andthenhotbituminousbinderofhigh
viscosityisspreadatthetop

Bitumenpenetratesthevoidsandbindsthe
aggregatestogether

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Premixmethods
Aggregatesandbinderaremixedbefore
spreadingandcompacting
Classifiedbasedongradationofaggregates
chosenas
OpenGraded
Commontypesare
Semidenseanddensemixes
BituminousMacadam

BituminousCarpet

BituminousConcrete 20
BituminousMacadam
Consistofoneormorecoursesofcompacted
aggregatespremixedwithbinder,laid
immediatelyaftermixing
Laidincompactedthicknessesof75mmor50
mm
Essentiallyabasecourseorbindercourseand
shouldhavesurfacing
Superiortootherbasecoursematerialsw.r.t
loaddispersionanddurability
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BituminousPremixedCarpet
Coarseaggregatesof12.5mmand10mmsize
premixedwithbinderandcompactedto
thicknessof20mmtoserveasabasecourse
Shouldbecoveredbyasealcoat
Semidensecarpet Wellgradedaggregateis
usedforconstructionofbituminouscarpetof
thickness20or25mm

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BituminousConcreteorAsphaltic
Concrete
Densegradedpremixedbituminousmixthatis
wellcompactedtoformapavementsurface
course
Mixtureofcoarseaggregates,fillerandfine
aggregates
Thickness 4075mm
IRCspecification 40mmthickACsurface
courseforhighwaypavements
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SheetAsphalt
Densesand bitumenpremixusedas
wearingcourse compactedthicknessof
25mm
Wellgradedcoarsetofinesandwithout
coarseaggregatesandbitumen
Laidovercementconcretepavement
Protectsjointsandhelpsinreductionin
warpingstresses
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MasticAsphalt
Mixtureofbitumen,fineaggregatesandfiller

Whencooledresultsinahard,stableand
durablelayerthatwithstandsheavytraffic

Absorbsvibrations

Suitablesurfacingmaterialforbridgedeck
slabs
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BituminousConstruction
Procedures
SurfaceDressing
GroutedorPenetrationMacadam
Built upSprayGrout
BitumenboundMacadam
BituminousCarpet
BituminousConcrete
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SurfaceDressing(BSD)
Doneineithersinglecoatorintwocoatsover
anexistingpavementforrenewalorasa
wearingcourseoveraWBMroad

Bitumengrades 80/100

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ConstructionSteps
SurfacePreparation
Applicationofbinder
Applicationofstonechippings
Rollingoffirstorfinalcoat
Applicationofbinderandstonechippingsfor
secondcoat
Rollingofsecondcoat
Finishingandopeningtotraffic after24hours

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BituminousConcreteConstruction
Properdesignofmixes essential
Densegradingofcoarseaggregates,fine
aggregatesandmineralfilletcoatedwith
bitumenbinder
Preparedinahotmixplant
Thicknessdependsontrafficandqualityof
basecourse

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ConstructionSteps
Preparationofexistingbasecourselayer

Applicationoftackcoat 6 7.5kgofbitumenper
10m2 area

Preparationandplacingofpremix
Bitumenheatedto1500 C 1770C&aggregate
temperatureshouldnotdifferbyover140Cfrombinder
temperature
Spreadatatemperatureof1210C1630C

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Rolling Initial 812troller&intermediate
1530t;final 812troller
QualityControl Bitumengrade,temperatureof
aggregate,temperatureduringmixingand
compaction
MarshallTestsconducted
1sampleoutofevery100tofmixdischargedis
tested
Forevery100m2 ofcompactedsurface,onefield
densitytestisdone
Variationinthickness 6mmper4.5mof
undulations notgreaterthan8mm.
construction 31
CementConcretePavements
Excellentridingsurface&pleasingappearance
Longerlife
Designonrationalbasis
Costsavingandexcellentperformance
Highinitialinvestment
Joints planesofweakness

ConstructionofCementConcrete
PavementSlab
Cementgroutedlayer Suitableforbasecourse

Rolledconcretelayer
CementConcreteslab
Cementgroutedlayer
Opengradedaggregatemixwithaggregateshaving
maximumsize 1825mm dryrolled
RolledConcretelayer
Cementgroutisappliedonthesurface
Leanmixconcreteisused
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MethodsofConstruction
AlternateBayMethod constructingabayorone
slabinalternatesuccessionleavingthenextto
immediatebaytofollowupafteragapofaweek

Advantages
Workingconvenienceforslablaying
Largeno.oftransversejointstobeprovided
Jointconstructioneasier
Completediversionoftrafficnecessary
Disadvantages

ContinuousBayMethod preferred
MaterialSpecifications
Cement OPCorRapidHardeningCement
Aggregates
Maxsizenotgreaterthanonefourthslabthickness

Gradationofcoarseaggregate 50to4.75mmor40to
4.75mmintwosizeranges,onebelowandtheother
above20mm
Crushingvalue 30%max

Impactvalue 30%max
LosAngelesAbrasionvalue 35%maxasperIRC

Fineaggregate naturalsandorcrushedstone
Concrete MinModulusofRuptureof40kg/cm2after28
daysofcuringorcompressivestrengthof280kg/cm2
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Plants&Equipmentsrequired

ConcreteMixer&BatchingDevice
VibratingScreed

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Plants&Equipmentsrequired
InternalVibrators
StraightEdge
Belt
FibreBrush
EdgingTool

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ConstructionSteps
PreparationofSubgradeandSubbase
Uniformlycompactedsubgrade extending30cm
oneithersideofwidthtobeconcreted
Properlydrained
Minkvalueof5.54kg/cm2
Tobekeptinmoistcondition
Waterproofpapertobeplacedincaseconcreteis
placeddirectlyoversubgrade

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PlacingofForms
Steelorwoodenforms
BatchingofmaterialandMixing
TransportingandPlacingofconcrete
CompactionandFinishing
FloatingandStraightEdging
Belting,BroomingandEdging
Curing
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ThankYou

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References
HighwayEngineering,S.K.Khanna&C.E.G.
Justo,NemChand&Bros.,2001.
PrinciplesofTransportationEngineering,
ParthaChakraborty&Animeshdas,Prentice
HallofIndiaPrivateLtd,2003.
PavementDesignandMaterials,A.T.
Papagiannakis&E.A.Masad,JohnWiley&
Sons,2007

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