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MEX3235 Thermo-Fluids

2nd Law of thermodynamics

First Law of Thermodynamics
Statement of Energy Balance / Conservation:

Energy in = Energy out

Heat in = Heat out

dq du dw

Heating Work Done

Sensible heating Change in Expansion
Latent heating Internal Energy Compression
Evaporational cooling
Radiational heating
Radiational cooling

Says nothing about the direction of energy transfer

Says nothing about the efficiency of energy transfer

Thermodynamics M. D. Eastin
Second Law of thermodynamics
The second law of thermodynamics which
can be stated in a number of ways. Below
given are three ways that often
The Kelvin-Planck Statement
The Clausius Statement
Entropy and the 2nd Law

Although the three may not appear to have much

connection with each other, they are equivalent.
1. The Kelvin-Planck Statement

Arising out of the second law explanations, the Kelvin

Planck statements is given by scientists as:

No process is possible whose sole result is the absorption of

heat from a reservoir and the conversion of this heat into work
2. The Clausius Statement
No process is possible whose sole result is the
transfer of heat from a cooler to a hotter body.
3. There exists for every system in equilibrium a
property called entropy, S , which is a thermodynamic
property of a system. For a reversible process, changes
in this property are given by

the numerator is the heat given to the system

the denominator is the temperature of the system at the

location where the heat is received.
Some attributes of entropy:

Entropy is a function of the state of the system and can

be found if any two properties of the system are known,

S is an extensive variable. The entropy per unit mass, or

specific entropy, is s .

The units of entropy are Joules per degree Kelvin (J/K).

The units for specific entropy are J/K-kg.

Entropy: a measure of the disorder of a system.

Second Law and Entropy

The second law of thermodynamics is closely

related to the concept of entropy, or the disorder
created during a thermodynamic process.
The Concept of Entropy
Irreversible Processes:

Entropy (S) is a measure of the microscopic disorder of a system

M. D. Eastin
Valve Valve
Vacuum Closed Gas Gas Open Gas

Molecules compressed to part of total area Molecules expand to fill total area
Lots of Order Lots of Disorder
Low Entropy Maximum Entropy
Change of entropy in reversible processes

T2 V2
S2 S1 CV ln R ln
T1 V

P2 V2
S2 S1 CV ln CP ln
P1 V1

T2 P2
S2 S1 CP ln R ln
T1 P1
2nd law of Thermodynamics ..
No apparatus can operate in such a way that the only effect is
to convert heat absorbed by a system completely into work
done by the system.
This defines the thermodynamic efficiency and is based on
the observation that only a portion of available heat could be
converted into useful work

No process is possible which consists solely in the transfer of

heat from one temperature level to a higher one.
This is based on the observation that heat always flows
spontaneously from a higher to a lower temperature

In an isolated system any transformation of energy into heat is

This indicates that all types of energy are eventually
degraded into heat, i.e., the entropy of the system +
surrounding always increase
Reversible process

A process in which the system and surroundings can be

restored to the initial state from the final state without producing
any changes in the thermodynamics properties of the universe is
called a reversible process.
Irreversible Process
In the irreversible process the initial state of the system
and surroundings cannot be restored from the final
The irreversible process is also called the natural
process because all the processes occurring in nature
are irreversible processes.
The natural process occurs due to the finite gradient
between the two states of the system.
For instance, heat flow between two bodies occurs due to
the temperature gradient between the two bodies; this is in
fact the natural flow of heat.
Water flows from high level to low level
Current moves from high potential to low potential, etc.
Carnot Cycle
Carnot Cycle is reversible and ideal
thermodynamic cycle comprising of
4 processes.
1 -2 Reversible Isothermal heat
2 3 Reversible adiabatic
expansion (isentropic)
3 4 Reversible Isothermal heat
4 -1 Reversible Adiabatic
compression (isentropic)
Thermal Energy Reservoirs
A reservoir that:
Supplies heat is a
Absorbs heat is a sink
Carnot Principles
The efficiency of an irreversible
heat engine is always less that
the efficiency of a reversible heat
engine operating between the
same two reservoirs

The efficiency of all reversible

heat engines operating between
the same two reservoirs are the
Carnot efficiency
Thermal efficiency for a reversible heat engine can be written
as follows.

th 1

According to Carnot theorem

th 1 L
Heat engine.
A heat engine is a device that converts heat into work.
A classic example is the steam engine

Receive heat from high

temperature source
Convert part of the heat to
work (usually a rotating shaft)
Reject remaining waste heat to
a low-temperature sink
Operate on a cycle
Thermal Efficiency
Thermal efficiency, th

th=net work output

/total heat input
th = 1 (heat out
/total heat in)
Carnot Heat Engine

Carnot Principle: the max thermal efficiency depends

only on the difference between the source and sink
Does not depend on property of fluid, type of engine,
friction, or fuel
Example 1

A Carnot heat engine, shown in fig receives 500 kJ heat per cycle from
a high temperature source at 652C and rejects heat to a low
temperature sink at 30C. Determine
Thermal efficiency f this Carnot engine and the amount of heat
rejected to the sink per cycle.
Example 2
Heat is transferred to a heat engine from a furnace at a rate of
80MW. If the rate of waste heat rejection to a nearby river is
50MW, Determine the net power output and the thermal
efficiency for this heat engine.
Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
Heat moves in nature from high temperatures to lower
temperatures, no devices required
The reverse process, heat from low temp to high temp,
required special devices called refrigerators or heat pumps
Coefficient of Performance (COP)
COP = Desired output/Required input
COPR = QL/Wnet,in = 1/((QH/QL)-1))
Heat Pumps
Desired output
/Required input
= QH/Wnet,in

Carnot Refrigerator and Heat Pump
heat absorbed
work done on the machine

, =

, =

Example 3
A heat pump is to be used to heat a
house during the winter as shown in fig.
The house is to be maintained at 21C
at all times. The house is estimated to
be losing heat at a rate of 135,000kJ/h
when the outside temperature drops to
-5C. Determine the minimum power
required to drive this heat pump.
2008/09 final

Starting from the Fist Law of thermodynamics, show that the entropy
change of an ideal gas from state 1 to state 2 can be expressed as

2 1 = 2 + 2
1 1

Hence show that for a polytropic process the entropy change can be
written as

2 1 =
1 1

Where n is the index of the polytropic process