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PRINCIPLES OF

TOURISM I

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 1
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION TO TOURISM

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 2
TOURISM
Definition of Tourism nountourism\tuu r-i-zm\

sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of
non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not
connected to any earning activity Prof. Hunziker and Krapf of Berne University,
Switzerland

tourism is the temporary short-term movement of people to


destinations outside places where they normally live and work and
their activities during their stay at these destinations Tourism
Society in Britain.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 3
Definition of Tourism
"traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not
more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes
WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION

In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in


its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:
Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within
this country
Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country
Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 4
Tourist VS. Excursionist
VS. Traveller

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 5
TOURIST
Tourists tend to stay in their comfort zones a bit; they may speak only
English instead of trying to learn phrases in the local language; stick to
major cities instead of venturing to smaller towns or off-the-beaten-path
locales; and stay in areas where the amenities are similar to what they
have at home.

Temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours, whose purpose could be


classified as leisure, business, family, mission and meeting.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 6
EXCURSIONIST
Temporary visitors staying less than 24 hours in the
destination visited and not making an overnight stay,
including cruise travelers but excluding travelers in transits

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 7
TRAVELLER
Generally speaking, someone who considers himself a traveler will
try to immerse himself in the local culture rather than standing out.
If you're a traveler, you may try to explore the less-traveled areas
and explore locations where tourism doesn't drive the economy.
You'll interact with locals. Your goals for a trip will be to learn and
experience new things, rather than to take a relaxing break from
everyday life. A traveler may consider a trip a journey rather than a
vacation.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 8
Five Characteristics of
Tourism
according to Burkhart and Medlik

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 9
Because of its complexity,
tourism is a combination of
phenomena and relationships;

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 10
It has two essential elements: the
dynamic element the journey
and the static element the stay

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 11
The journey and stay are to and from the
destinations outside the place of residence
and work.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 12
The movement to destinations is temporary
and short term with the intention to return
within a few days, weeks or months

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 13
Destinations are visited for the
purposes not connected with
paid work, that is, not to be
employed and not for business
or vocational reasons

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 14
Elements of
Travel
Distanc
e
Length of Stay at a
Destination
Purpose of Travel
Nature of the tour

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 15
DISTANCE

The difference between local travel or


traveling within a persons home community
and non local travel away from home

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 16
LENGTH OF STAY

Tourists
temporary visitors who make at least one overnight stay or 24 hours;

Excursionists
temporary visitors who do not stay at
least 24 hours in a destination

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 17
RESIDENCE
OF TRAVELLER

The residence or origin of the traveller is the third basic


elements of travel. For research business and research
purposes, it is important to know where people live

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 18
PURPOSE
OF TRAVEL
Visiting friends and relatives
Conventions, Seminars and
Meetings
Business
Outdoor Recreation (e.g.
Hunting, fishing, boating and
camping)
Entertainment (sightseeing,
theatre, sports)
Personal (family, medical, funeral,
wedding)
Others
P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 19
THE NATURE OF A
TOUR
Domestic Tourism
travel taken within the boundaries of ones country

International Tourism
a travel from one territory or country to the other

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 20
THE NATURE OF A
TOUR
Package tour
tour segments are bought in an all inclusive price;
individual price of these elements cannot be
determined by the buyer himself

Independent tour
buying tour segments separately from one or more
suppliers

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 21
THE TOURIST PRODUCT
It is a service an
intangible item

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 22
THE TOURIST PRODUCT
It is the temporary use of a
strange environment plus the
culture and heritage of the region
and other intangible benefits such
as the atmosphere and hospitality

Largely psychological in
its attraction

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 23
March Augu
st

Product tends to vary in


standard and quality over time

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 24
Peak Lean

The supply of the


product is fixed

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 25
THE TOURIST DESTINATION

Is a geographical unit which the tourist visits


THREE BASIC and stays. It may be a village, a town, a city, a
FACTORS: district, a region, an island, a country or a
continent
1. Attractions
2. Amenities or
Facilities
3. Accessibility

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 26
ATTRACTIONS

Event
Attractions Tourist are
drawn to the
destination
solely
because of
whats taking
place there

Site
Attractions The
destination
itself has the
appeal

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 27
ATTRACTIONS

Natural
Attractions

Includes
mountains,
beaches, climatic
features, such as Include building of
sunshine and pure historical or
air. architectural
interests such as
Fort Santiago,
holiday camps or
theme parks.
Man-made
Attractions

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 28
Tourist Services

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 29
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

In tourism, the product is not bought to the consumer; rather, the


consumer has to travel and go to the product to purchase it.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 30
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

The products of tourism are not used up; thus, they do not
exhaust the countrys natural resources.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 31
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

Tourism is a labour intensive industry

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 32
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

Tourism is people oriented

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 33
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM
Tourism is multi dimensional
phenomenon

The Galapagos
Islands

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 34
P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 35
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM

Tourist industry is seasonal

March Augus
t

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 36
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM
The industry is dynamic

[ Itischaracterizedbythechangingideasandattitudesofits
customersthereforemustbealwayspreparedandwillingto
adjusttothesechanges ]

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 37
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM
Contribution to the balance of payments.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 38
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

Dispersion of development.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 39
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

Effect on general
economic development.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 40
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

Employment opportunities.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 41
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

Social benefits.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 42
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

Cultural enrichment.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 43
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

Educational significance.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 44
IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM

A vital force for peace.

P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 45
P R I N C IP L E S O F T O U R I S M I BY A P P L E JA N E C . DA L E S 46

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