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EC6014 - Cognitive Radio


New Paradigm in wireless communication

Efficient utilization of radio spectrum.

Novel approach for improving the utilization of
electromagnetic spectrum recommended by FCC
Provides solution to the spectral congestion problem by
introducing opportunistic usage of Spectrum holes
Two main characteristics of CR are i) Cognitive capability
and ii) Reconfigurability
CR definition adopted by FCC
A radio or system that senses its operational electromagnetic
environment and can dynamically and autonomously adjust
its radio operating parameters to modify system operation,
such as maximize throughput, mitigate interference, facilitate
interoperability, access secondary markets.
Spectrum Holes
A spectrum hole is a band of frequencies assigned to a
primary user, but, at a particular time and specific geographic
location, the band is not being utilized by that user.
Cognitive Capability


act orient

decide learn
CR Network architecture
CR Network architecture.
Cognitive Radio Scenario
Project/Research topics in CR
Information theoretic analysis and fundamental performance limit of dynamic spectrum access

Modulation and waveform design, propagation modeling, and spectrum sensing

Measurement and statistical modeling of spectrum usage

Spectrum sharing, resource allocation, multiple access, and power control

Machine learning, self-configuration, distributed adaptation, and co-existence

Multi-hop transmission, routing, and cross-layer optimization

Spectrum mobility and handof

Economics of cognitive radio systems

Robustness, reliability, security

Applications and services

Simulation tools, test-beds, software and hardware prototypes

Potential applications of CR
Major CR testbed platforms
Berkeley Emulation Engine (BEE2)
Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP)
Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP)
The WINLAB at Rutgers University, NJ developed a
network-centric cognitive radio platform called
Cognitive radio technology can solve the problem
of spectrum underutilization
Many researchers are currently engaged in
developing the communication technologies and
protocols required for CR networks
TRAI is looking for efective spectrum management
techniques using CR/SDR platforms to provide
efective spectrum utilization for next generation
wireless communication networks. (Ref. National
Telecom Policy-2015).
Important References

Simon Haykin. Cognitive Radio: Brain-Empowered wireless communication, IEEE Journal on

selected areas in communications, vol.23, no.2, 201-220, Feb.2005.
I.F. Akyildiz, W.-Y. Lee, M.C. Vuran, S. Mohanty, NeXt generation/dynamic spectrum
access/cognitive radio wireless networks:a survey, Elsevier Journal on Computer Networks,
vol.50, no.13, pp.21272159, 2006.
Y.C.Liang et al. Cognitive Radio Networking and Communications: An overview, IEEE
Transactions on Vehicular technology, vol.60, no.7, 3386-3407, Sep.2011.

Some useful links:

Introduction to SDR
Topics to be discussed:

Definitions and potential benefits

Software radio architecture evolution
Technology tradeofs and architecture implications
Definition of SDR

Radio in which some or all of the physical

layer functions are software defined.
Radios that provide software control of a variety of
modulation techniques, wide-band or narrow-band
operation, communications security functions such
as hopping, and waveform requirements of current
and evolving standards over a broad frequency
Advantages of SDR
Ease of design
Reduces design-cycle time, quicker iterations
Ease of manufacture
Digital hardware reduces costs associated with manufacturing and
testing radios
Multimode operation
SDR can change modes by loading appropriate software into memory
Use of advanced signal processing techniques
Allows implementation of new receiver structures and signal
processing techniques
Fewer discrete components
Digital processors can implement functions such as synchronization,
demodulation, error correction, decryption, etc.
Flexibility to incorporate additional functionality
Can be modified in the field to correct problems and to upgrade
Benefits of SDR

Reprogrammable units and infrastructure
Reduced obsolescence
Ubiquitous connectivity
Diferent standards can co-exist
Enhances/facilitates experimentation
Brings analog and digital worlds together
Full convergence of digital networks and radio science
Simultaneous voice, data, and video
Revolution and Evolution of SDR

In the early 1990s, the software radio revolution began.

evolution toward practical software radios is accelerating through a
combination of techniques
smart antennas, multiband antennas, and wideband RF devices, wideband
analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters (DACs)
access GHz of spectrum instantaneously.
Ideal Software Radio:
top-down approach to the software radio architecture.
software radio handset consist of a power supply, an antenna, a multiband
RF converter, and a single chip containing ADC and DAC.
SDR design uses Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Field
Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), and
general purpose (GP) processor technologies.
The ideal software radio handset and base station concepts
Functional model of a software radio communications system
Group tasks
Evolution of SDR for next generation wireless networks
Simulation and Emulation platform of SDR architecture
Machine learning for Cognitive Radios
Exploring GNU radio
Hybrid approach to Cognitive Radio testbed
Primary transmitter spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radios
Typical SDR System
SDR Block Diagram
SDR Hardware
Universal Software Ra
dio Peripheral (USRP2)
2 ADC 100MS/s (14-bit)
2 DAC 400MS/s (16-bit)
Gigabit Ethernet Interface
Larger FPGA
On-board SRAM
MIMO capable
Available daughter-boards

Basic TX/RX: 1MHz 250MHz

TVRX: 50MHz-860Mhz
DBSRX: 800MHz 2.4GHz
WBX0510: 50MHz 1GHz(20dBm)
XCVR2450: 2.4GHz 2.5GHz & 4.9GHz -5.9GHz(20dBm)

RFX400: 400MHz 500MHz (20dBm)

RFX900: 750MHz 1050MHz(23dBm)
RFX1200: 1150MHz 1450MHz(23dBm)
RFX1800: 1.5GHz 2.1GHz(20dBm)
RFX2400: 2.3GHz 2.9GHz(17dBm)
SDR Architecture
Basic Software architecture of modern SDR

API application programming

BIST built-in self-test; CORBA
Common Object Request Broker
POSIX Portable Operating
System Interface.
Standardized APIs are defined for the major interfaces to ensure software
portability across many very diferent hardware platform implementations
The software has the ability to allocate computational resources to specific
SDR supports many waveforms to interface to many networks, and thus to
have a library of waveforms and protocols.
The SCA core framework is the inheritance structure of the open application
layer interfaces and services, and provides an abstraction of underlying
software and hardware.
The SCA also specifies a Common Object Request Broker Architecture
(CORBA) middleware, which is used to provide a standardized method for
software objects to communicate with each other, regardless of which
processor they have been installed on (think of it as a software data bus).
The SCA also provides a standardized method of defining the requirements
for each application, performed in eXtensible Markup Language (XML).
Basically describes the software components within a Software Defined Radio
and in particular it defines the interfaces.
The use of SCA provides two main advantages:
It enables software elements or modules to be written by diferent
organisations and to be brought together.
It enables the re-use of some modules, thereby improving interoperability and
providing significant cost savings.
The three SCA categories may be defined as follows:
Management: Software which falls into this SCA category is used for
managing the radio system. Various applications may include plug and play;
deployment and configuration software.
Node: This software may comprise such applications as bootstrapping and
access to hardware.
Application: This type of software is used particularly for the signal
processing. Examples of this may include waveform generation, demodulation,
frequency translation, etc.

Middleware known as CORBA, Common Object Request

Broker Architecture is used to facilitate inter-module
Its use is an integral part of the SCA Software
Communications Architecture standard and it is a key
element in enabling modules and elements of software
written by diferent organisations to be brought together
CORBA is a standard software defined by the Object
Management Group (OMG).
Its aim is to enable software modules written in a variety of
diferent computer languages and running on diferent
platforms to be brought together and operate.
Digital Receiver signal processing block diagram
Digital Transmitter signal processing block diagram
UNIT III Introduction to CR

CR Definition
Cognitive radio is an intelligent wireless communication system that is aware of its
surrounding environment (i.e., outside world), and uses the methodology of
understanding-by-building to learn from the environment and adapt its internal
states to statistical variations in the incoming RF stimuli by making corresponding
changes in certain operating parameters (e.g., transmit-power, carrier-frequency,
and modulation strategy) in real-time, with two primary objectives in mind:

1. highly reliable communications whenever and wherever needed

2.efficient utilization of the radio spectrum.

Six Keywords : awareness, intelligence, learning, adaptivity, reliability and

CR Framework
Simplified Cognition Cycle
Capability Space: Cognition Tasks and Models
Cognitive Radio Sensor Suite