Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

Hypothetical Propositions

1. Conditional Proposition
Conditional propositions are if-then statements.
Two components:
a. antecedent-the proposition which expresses the
condition and is introduced by the word if.
b. Consequent-the proposition which is dependent on the
materialization of the condition and is introduced by the
word then.
Ex.
If a man dies, then he is a mortal being.
2. Disjunctive Proposition
Disjunctive propositions are either-or
statements. The parts of disjunction are
known as disjuncts.
Two forms:
a. Proper disjunction: disjuncts are mutually
exclusive from each other.
Ex. Either a man is polite or impolite.
a. Improper disjunction: disjuncts are not
mutually exclusive from each other.
Ex. Marys dress is either black or white.
3. Conjunctive Propositions
Conjunctive proposition is a proposition which
consists of two statements conjoined by the word
and. Its component parts are called the
conjuncts. These conjuncts cannot be true at the
same time, but they may be false together.
The general rules on this proposition:
a.From the truth of one member, the falsity of the
other follows.
b.From the falsity of one member, the truth of the
other does not necessarily follow.

Ex. The tree cannot be a mahogany and an ipil-ipil at


the same time.
Hypothetical Syllogism
1. Conditional Syllogism
Conditional syllogism is one whose major premise is a
conditional proposition while the minor premise and
conclusion are categorical propositions.
Two laws governing conditional syllogism:
a. From the truth of the antecedent, the truth of the
consequent follows; but from the falsity of the
antecedent, the falsity of the consequent does not
necessarily follow.
b. From the falsity of the consequent, the falsity of the
antecedent follows; but from the truth of the
consequent, the truth of the antecedent does not
necessarily follow.
The Two Valid Moods of Conditional Syllogism:
A. Modus Ponens
In this mood, the truth of the antecedent implies the
truth of the consequent.
Ex. If Mario is a priest, then he is an unmarried man.
He is a priest.
Therefore, Mario is an unmarried man.
B. Modus Tollens
In this mood, the falsity of the consequent implies the
falsity of the antecedent.
Ex. If John is a scholar, then he passed all his subjects.
John did not passed all his subjects.
Therefore, John is not a scholar.
The Two Invalid Moods of Conditional Syllogism:
A. Fallacy of rejecting the antecedent
This fallacy is committed when we reject the
antecedent in the minor premise.
Ex. If Gino is a UP product, then he is a good
manager.
He is not a UP product.
Therefore, Gino is not a good manager.
B. Fallacy of accepting the consequent
This fallacy is committed when we accept the
consequent in the minor premise.
Ex. If Carlo has cancer, then he is seriously ill.
He is seriously ill.
Therefore Carlo has cancer.
2. Disjunctive syllogism
A disjunctive syllogism is one whose major premise
is a disjunctive proposition while its minor premise
and conclusion are categorical propositions.
Proper disjunctive syllogism- the component parts of
proper disjunctive proposition can neither be true
nor false together.
A.Ponendo Tollens
This mood is characterized by this rule: If one disjunct
is accepted in the minor premise, the other disjunct
must be rejected in the conclusion.
Ex. The man is either honest or dishonest.
Pedro is honest.
Therefore, Pedro is not dishonest.
B. Tollendo Ponens
This mood is characterized by this rule: If one disjunct is
rejected in the minor premise, the other disjunct
must be accepted in the conclusion.
Ex. The man is either honest or dishonest.
Pedro is not honest.
Therefore, Pedro is dishonest.

The man is either honest or dishonest.


Pedro is not dishonest.
Therefore, Pedro is honest.
Imroper disjunctive syllogism- there is only one
valid mood under improper disjunctive
syllogism:
Ponendo Tollens
This mood is characterized by this rule: If one
disjunct is accepted in the minor premise, the
other disjunct must be rejected in the
conclusion.
Ex. The girl is either beautiful or ugly.
She is beautiful.
Therefore she is not ugly.
The invalid mood of Tollendo Ponens
This fallacy can be drawn out if we will take the reverse,
that is, reject one part in the minor premise, and accept
the other part in the conclusion. This invalid mood is
known as the fallacy of rejecting a disjunct.

Ex. The basketball player is either tall or short.


He is not tall.
Therefore the basketball player is short.
3. Conjunctive Syllogism
A Conjunctive syllogism is one whose major premise is a
conjunctive proposition while its minor premise and
conclusion are categorical propositions.

There is only one valid mood under conjunctive syllogism:


Ponendo Tollens
This mood is characterized by this rule: If one conjunct is
accepted in the minor premise, the other conjunct must be
rejected in the conclusion.
Ex.
Ariel cannot be in the library and in the AVR at the same
time.
Ariel is in the library.
Therefore, he is not in the AVR.
The invalid mood of Tollendo Ponens
This fallacy can be drawn out if we will take the
reverse, that is, reject one conjunct the minor
premise, and accept the other conjunct the
conclusion. This invalid mood is known as the
fallacy of rejecting a conjunct.
Ex.
Ariel cannot be in the library and in the AVR
at the same time.
Ariel is not in the library.
Therefore, he is in the AVR.