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Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing

goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use.

Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells.

Packaging surrounds, enhances and protects the goods we buy, from

processing and manufacturing through handling and storage to the
final consumer.
Importance of Packaging in

Fiber Yarn Fabric

Packaging of Textile Raw
Fiber packaging
Yarn packaging
Fabric packaging
Garment packaging
Types of Fiber Packaging

Bales are a large bundle or package of fibers prepared for shipping, storage, or
Bale packing machinery
Hydraulic Press Machine
Consists of a frame,
hydraulics rams and
hydraulic power systems
Bale Management
An evening out of the
quality characteristics of a
A means of avoiding quality
A possibility of reducing
costs as a result of an
improved knowledge of the
fibre characteristics
A sliver is a long bundle of
fiber that is generally used
to spin yarn. A sliver is created
by carding or combing the
fibre, which is then drawn into
long strips where the fibre is
The sliver is coiled in cans for
storage and transport.
Coiling of Slivers
The process (Cyclonical deposition) by which the delivered sliver is
uniformly deposited in a sliver can in an orderly manner is called
Types of Coiling
Over centre coiling Under centre coiling
To convert or transfer the opened and cleaned cotton fiber into a
sheet form of definite width and uniform unit length is called Lap.
Lap Forming Machine
Recent Development in Packaging of
Wool Fibers
The process of winding of yarn into packages is called yarn
Yarn winding is thus simply a packaging process, forming a
link between the last few elements of yarn manufacturing and
the first element of fabric manufacturing process.
Types of Yarn Packages:
Some of the very fine soft
yarns are wound on cones,
very coarse yarns are in
skein form, but the largest
proportion by far is wound
on the one headed tube with
base or straight tubes
Spools are small flanged plastic or
wooden bobbins, they are both with
tapered and straight flanges.

End uses: Yarns used in Upholstery,

manufacturing, and in hand sewing
Cops are small cylindrical
flangeless spools, with precision
cross winding.
They are mostly made of paper and

End uses: Kite flying, Upholstery,

ready-made garment, tailoring,
hosiery, umbrella, and shoe stitching
Cones are self-supporting, cross
wound conical package.
Cones are the most economical
packages for conventional sewing
End uses: ready made garment,
tailoring, hosiery, leather stitching,
Upholstery, shoe stitching, denim,
embroidery, and kite flying.
Vicone or King spool
Vicones are parallel tubes or low
angled cones with an additional base
in the form of a raised flange.

End uses: embroidery, core-spun,

and filament threads .
A very small hank of soft twisted
plied thread (around 8 m) of coarse
count, is parallel wound with the
help rotating flyer, which withdraws
the thread from the supply package
End uses: embroidery.
A typical ball like structure,
wound with the help of four
types of different winding.
An easy unwinding of thread is
End uses: embroidery, fishing
net and bag closing.
Cocoons are self-supporting
i.e. center-less thread package
specially designed for the
insertion in the shuttle of multi
needle quilting and some
types of embroidery.

End use: Quilting Threads

Types of Winding Systems
Precision winding
Step precision or digicone winding
Random winding
Pineapple winding
Parallel winding
Ball winding
Skein winding
Packaging of Different Yarns
Filament Winding :
Filament winding is a fabrication
technique mainly used for
manufacturing open (cylinders)
or closed end structures (pressure
vessels or tanks). The process
involves winding filaments under
tension over a rotating mandrel.
Packaging of different yarns
Sewing thread winding
Embroidery thread winding:
Yarn Package Defects
In todays competitive market, the customers are becoming more and
more sensitive with regard to quality, hence any defects are not desirable

To meet both qualitative and quantitative demands, one has to exploit all
the available features of winding machine in a judicious manner.

The seriousness of all the types of defects is same. Any sort of defect
causes yarn package rejection.
Jali Package
Certain yarn portion comes out of its
traverse position during package
formation and gets winded cross on
bottom or top surface of the package.

Cause: Improper timing of drum brake

Remedies: Winding acceleration and

brake timings to be checked and
standard timings to be set.
Bunch Package
A small groups of yarn get
sliced with single yarn and goes
into the yarn.

Causes: Yarn trapped in gripper


Remedies: Top bunch setting of

ring frame cop to be set at 10
Cut Package
The yarn is broken on the edges or
in the middle of the cone.

Causes :Tight setting of deflector


Remedies: Deflector plate and

suction mouth setting to be adjusted.
Ribbon Package
A pattern or ring is formed on the
surface of the package by the drum
when drum rpm are staying the same.

Causes: Anti-patterning device does not


Remedies: Anti-patterning device

working to be checked and adjusted.
Hard and Soft Package
Package hardness varies from its desired
value resulting in great difference in
package density from one winder head to
another .

Causes: Improper tension setting - too high

produce hard cone and low tension
produce soft cone.

Remedies: Tension, Pre-tensioner and

cradle pressure set settings are to be set as
per material type and package parameters.
Displayed/Loose Yarn Layers
Some layers of yarn are pushed out
on the small diameter side of the
Causes: Paper cone slips from
Remedies: Paper cone to be fitted
properly in the adaptor by operator.
Over Doff Package
Package weight exceeds from required weight.

Causes: Length sensor does not work.

Wrong length setting in informator of the machine.

Remedies: Rouge drums to be identified and functioning of length

sensor to be checked periodically.
Dirty Package
Package surface gets dirty or contaminated with oil drops or carbon

Causes: Use of dirty hands by operators.

Un-cleaned machine parts.

Remedies: Machine parts and hands have to be cleanedcontinuously.

Stained Package
A dark ring appears on a specific area
or portion of the package. It is
generated because of surface friction
between package and other machine

Causes: Lapping in drum.

Remedies: Bended deflector plates

have to be straightened up.
Drum Jammed Package
Winding of yarn on small portion
(along the traverse) of the package
because of defective traverse action.

Causes: Deflector plate got bent.

Remedies: The deflector plate to be

made straight.
Squeezed Package
After full or partial cone building cone
shoulderbends inwards.

Causes: Poor handling of empty paper


Remedies: Soft handling of package after

doffing and during packing.
Webbed Package
Yarn layers come out of cone surface and
forms a web like appearance.

Causes: Drum stops for long time.

Remedies: Drum stoppage with partially

built-up cone for longer time to be
Development in Yarn
1. Computer Aided Package(C A P):
C A P is an electronic type modulation .
It is claimed that with C A P winders produce perfect packages without
patterns. Consequently, no unwinding speed limits are imposed in the
subsequent processes of warping, knitting and dyeing .
2. Precision winding with counter-rotating blades:
To avoid patterning two counter-rotating blades are used. These blades
are also used for traversing the yarn and deposit on the cylindrical
package .
The wind ratio prevents the number of coils per double traverse reaching
a whole number effectively from empty to full package.
Consequently no ribboning or patterning is produced on the package.
The crossing angle becomes progressively narrower as the package
diameter increases.
Fabrics to be packed should be perfectly dry, clean, brushed, and in
order, that is, properly folded.
Fabric packaging is primarily done in the form of rolls.
Fabric Packing In Rolls
The only and most common method
of packaging fabrics is in rolls.
Roll of textile are packaged in
longitudinal length inserted within a
polymeric bag disposed over the
The polymeric bag is designed to
provide water and abrasion
Packaging in Rolls
A wound roll is wrapped with plastic in
a manual wrapping process.
The plastic wrap helps to maintain
moisture protection for the fabric during
shipment and storage.
There is a present need to enhance fabric
roll packaging so that end users can
reuse the packaging for partial rolls.
Packaging is one of the most important parts of apparel manufacturing
process. After completing the manufacturing process the apparel is
sent or packaging.
Various types of packing are done which depends on the type of
Types Of Packaging
Stand up pack : Shirt (900 angle)
Flat pack : Sportswear/ shirt/
Hanger pack : Blazer, coats,
pants etc.
Semi stand up pack : Shirt.
Half fold pack : Pant.
Packing Garment into Poly
1. Single piece packing single
garment is packed into poly bag or
into a cardboard box.

2. Blister packing: In blister

packing more than one garments
are packed into a poly bag in a size
and color ratio. Later those poly
bags are packed into carton box.
Packing Garment without
Solid Packing: In this method of packing, the carton box will include
garments of single color and same size.
Assorted Packing or Ratio
Ratio Packing: In this method the carton box includes garments of
same color but of different sizes according to the ratio

Mixed Packing: In this method the carton box includes garments of

different colors but of same size or garments with different colors
and different sizes in a particular ratio form.
Garment Packing Based on
Folding Method
Garments are not folded at all full garment is packed into poly bag in
hanger and placed on carton.
Garments are not folded and not packed into individual poly bag.
Garments are directly placed into carton boxes.
Crashed fold garments like shorts, boxers, cargo pants crashed
folded and items of different colors are packed into poly bag.
Innovative packaging design
can be a fantastic way to
achieve branding and sales
goals, and should be carefully
considered when it comes to
Different Innovations In
Different Innovations In
Energy Saving During
Sustainability of the garments industry is also a burning issue, needed
to adopt cleaner and improved technology and management for better
Waste Management
Improve the quality of cops by
reducing defects like ring cuts, over
filled cops, double gaiting, etc.
Maintain the number of under wound
coils on the cop at below 5.
Ensure a high cop content for the
given package size.
Avoid using damaged cops in ring
Knowledge of the functions of packaging and the environments where
it has to perform will lead to the optimization of package design and
the development of real, cost-effective packaging.
Packaging of textile raw materials is as important as the processing of
For any textile raw material to be stored, transported or carried away,
it is necessary to package the raw material. And also packaging
promotes more sales, segregates products and makes it easier in
selection and speculation.
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