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Arc Welding Processes

Arc Welding Processes

Lesson Objectives Learning Activities


1. Read Handbook Pp
When you finish this lesson you will
1-16,
understand: 2. Look up Keywords
The similarities and difference between 3. View Slides;
some of the various arc welding processes 4. Read Notes,
Flux and gas shielding methods 5. Listen to
6. lecture
Advantages and disadvantages of the arc
7. Do on-line
welding processes workbook
Need to select between the processes 8. Do homework

Keywords
Welding Flux, Inert Shielding Gas, Shielded Metal Arc Welding
(SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Metal Transfer Mode,
Flux Cored Arc Welding FCAW), Submerged Arc Welding (SAW),
Linnert, Welding Metallurgy,
AWS, 1994
Arc Welding Processes
Welding processes that employ an electric arc are
the most prevalent in industry
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Gas Metal Arc Welding
Flux Cored Arc Welding
Submerged Arc Welding Electric Arc
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
These processes are associated with molten metal
Linnert, Welding Metallurgy,
AWS, 1994
Protection of the Molten Weld Pool

Molten metal reacts with the atmosphere


Oxides and nitrides are formed
Discontinuities such as porosity
Poor weld metal properties
All arc welding processes employ some means of
shielding the molten weld pool from the air
Welding Flux

Three forms
Granular
Electrode wire coating
Electrode core
Fluxes melt to form a protective slag over the weld pool
Other purposes
Contain scavenger elements to purify weld metal
Contain metal powder added to increase deposition rate
Add alloy elements to weld metal
Decompose to form a shielding gas
Shielding Gas

Shielding gas forms a protective atmosphere over the


molten weld pool to prevent contamination
Inert shielding gases, argon or helium, keep out oxygen,
nitrogen, and other gases
Active gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, are
sometimes added to improve variables such as arc
stability and spatter reduction

Argon Helium Oxygen Carbon Dioxide


Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):
What would happen if there was no flux on the wire to
decompose into gas or no inert shielding gas was provided?
What would the weld metal look like?
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
SMAW Electrode Classification Example

E7018
E indicates electrode
70 indicates 70,000 psi tensile strength
1 indicates use for welding in all positions
8 indicates low hydrogen

E7018-A1-H8R
ANSI/AWS - 5.1 : Specification for Covered Carbon Steel
ANSI/AWS - 5.5 : Specification for Low Alloy Steel
ANSI/AWS - 5.4 : Specification for Corrosion Resistant Steel

AWS Website:
http://www.aws.org
Coating Materials -Partial List

Slipping Agents to Aid Extrusion


Arc Stabilizers
Clay
Titania TiO2
Talc
Glycerin
Gas-Forming Materials
Wood Pulp
Binding Agents
Limestone CaCO3
Sodium Silicate
Asbestos
Slag-Forming Materials
Starch
Alumina Al2O3
Sugar
TiO2
SiO2
Fe3O4 Alloying and Deoxidizing Elements
Si, Al, Ti, Mn, Ni, Cr
Linnert, Welding Metallurgy
AWS, 1994
Linnert, Welding Metallurgy
AWS, 1994
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

SMAW Advantages
Easily implemented
Inexpensive
Flexible
Not as sensitive to part
fit-up variances
Advantages

Equipment relatively easy to use, inexpensive, portable


Filler metal and means for protecting the weld puddle are
provided by the covered electrode
Less sensitive to drafts, dirty parts, poor fit-up
Can be used on carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless
steels, cast irons, copper, nickel, aluminum
Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Quality Issues

Discontinuities associated
with manual welding
process that utilize flux
for pool shielding
Slag inclusions
Lack of fusion
Other possible effects on
quality are porosity, and
hydrogen cracking
Shileded Metal Arc Welding

Limitations

Low Deposition Rates


Low Productivity
Operator Dependent
Other Limitations

Heat of welding too high for lead, tin, zinc, and their
alloys
Inadequate weld pool shielding for reactive metals such
as titanium, zirconium, tantalum, columbium
Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):
Wood (cellulose) and limestone are added to the coating on
SMAW Electrodes for gas shielding. What gases might be
formed?
How do these gases shield?
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Gas Metal Arc Welding


Gas Metal Arc Welding

GMAW Modes of Metal Transfer


Spray Globular

Short Circuiting Pulsed Spray


Gas Metal Arc Welding

GMAW Filler Metal Designations

ER - 70S - 6
Composition
Electrode 6 = high silicon
Solid Electrode
Rod (can be used
with GMAW) Minimum ultimate tensile
strength of the weld metal
AWS Specifications for GMAW Wire

AWS A5.18 - Carbon Steel Electrodes


AWS A5.28 - Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Shielding Gas

Shielding gas can affect


Weld bead shape
Arc heat, stability, and
starting
Surface tension
Ar He CO2 Drop size
Ar-He
Puddle flow
Spatter
Gas Metal Arc Welding

GMAW Advantages

Deposition rates higher


than SMAW
Productivity higher than
SMAW with no slag
removal and continuous
welding
Easily automated
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Quality

Spatter
Droplets of electrode
material that land outside
the weld fusion area and
may or may not fuse to the
base material
Porosity
Small volumes of
entrapped gas in solidifying
weld metal
Gas Metal Arc Welding

Limitations
Equipment is more
expensive and complex
than SMAW
Process variants/metal
transfer mechanisms
make the process more
complex and the process
window more difficult to
control
Restricted access
GMAW gun is larger than
SMAW holder
Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):
When comparing processes that have spray and globular
metal transfer, which type of transfer mode do you thnk
results in more spatter? Why?
Flux-Cored Arc Welding

Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)


Linnert, Welding Metallurgy,
AWS, 1994
Flux-Cored Arc Welding

FCAW Electrode Classification

E70 T - 1
Electrode
Type Gas, Usability
Minimum UTS and Performance
70,000 psi
Flux Cored /Tubular
Position Electrode

American Welding Society Specification


AWS A5.20 and AWS A5.29.
Linnert, Welding Metallurgy
AWS, 1994
Flux-Cored Arc Welding

Advantages

High deposition rates


Deeper penetration than
SMAW
High-quality
Less pre-cleaning than
GMAW
Slag covering helps with
larger out-of-position
welds
Self-shielded FCAW is
draft tolerant.
Flux-Cored Arc Welding

Limitations

Slag must be removed


More smoke and fumes
than GMAW and SAW
Spatter
FCAW wire is more
expensive
Equipment is more
expensive and complex
than for SMAW
Turn to the person sitting next to you and discuss (1 min.):
What do you suppose would happen if the powder inside
the core did not get compacted good?
Submerged Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding


Submerged Arc Welding

SAW Flux / Filler Metal Compositions

F7A2-EM12K
F indicates flux
70-95 ksi UTS, 58 ksi minimum yield strength, 22% elongation
A - as welded; P - postweld heat treated
2 - minimum impact properties of 20 ft-lbs @ 20F
E indicates electrode (EC - composite electrode)
M - medium manganese per AWS Specifications
12 - 0.12% nominal carbon content in electrode
K - produced from a heat of aluminum killed steel
Submerged Arc Welding

Advantages
High deposition rates
No arc flash or glare
Minimal smoke and fumes
Flux and wire added
separately - extra dimension of
control
Easily automated
Joints can be prepared with
narrow grooves
Can be used to weld carbon
steels, low alloy steels,
stainless steels, chromium-
molybdenum steels, nickel
base alloys
Submerged Arc Welding

Limitations
Flux obstructs view of
joint during welding
Flux is subject to
contamination porosity
Normally not suitable for
thin material
Restricted to the flat
position for grooves - flat
and horizontal for fillets
Slag removal required
Flux handling equipment
Do Homework Assignment 2, Arc Welding
Processes from the Assignment Page of the WE300
Website. Turn in next Class Period.