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ADVANCES IN

POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

HEMANG TAILOR
ELECTRICAL ENGG. DEPT., FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING,
M.S.UNIVERSITY OF BARODA, VADODARA
Electrical Utilities are undergoing a
period of fundamental changes such as
Privatisation
Deregulation
Due to competition, the aim at
Improving economic efficiency
Reliability of the supply
Quality of the supply
NERC report showed that 63% major
disturbances are protection related
CIGRE study found that 27% of
buck power disturbances resulted
from false trips

So generation, transmission and distribution


must be adequately controlled and protected.
Selectivity
Speed
Sensitivity
Simplicity
Reliability
Economy
Before 1940 -- Electromechanical Relays
From 1940 -- Electronics Relay
From 1950 -- Static Relay
From 1960 Computer Relay
Toshiba's development history
1907 - Plunger type overcurrent relay
1920 -- Induction disk type overcurrent relay
1939 -- Induction cup type directional relay
1950 Distance relay
1951 -- Directional comparison relay
1952 --Pilot wire relay applied to 275kV line
1954 -- Transformer protection relay based on percentage current differential
1956 -- Phase comparison relay applied to 275kV line
1959 -- Static busbar protection relay
1960 -- Multi phase autoreclosing with segregated phase comparison relay
applied to 275kV
1968 --World's first preventive fault extension protection system
1969 -- World's first static phase comparison relay having automatic testing
and self diagnosis
1977 -- World's first FM current differential relay applied to 275kV line
1980 -- World's first microprocessor-based PCM current differential relay
applied to 275kV line. World's first microprocessor-based distance relay applied
to 66kV line
1984 -- World's first microprocessor-based power system stabilizing relay
applied to TEPCO's metropolitan underground cable network
1985 -- Microprocessor-based transformer protection relay
1986 -- Toshiba's second generation numerical relay. Since then, numerical
relays have been developed to satisfy all types of application.
1989 -- World's first microprocessor-based substation automation system
applied to 275kV substation
1993 -- Toshiba's third generation numerical relay
1999 -- Compact & high performance numerical relay (GR-series)
Substation automation system (GSC1000)
2000 -- Network solution equipment for the system monitoring and
measurement
2002 -- Microprocessor based numerical protection relay applied to 765kV
substation
Combined
Protection,
monitoring
system
Definition:
An electromechanical is an electrical relay which respond to
electrical signals with mechanical components.
Attraction type:
Instantaneous operation
Operate on a.c. & d.c. both
Large VA burden
Sensitive to transients
Ex- hinged, plunger, polarised, moving iron, balanced
beam type etc.
Induction Relay:
Robust and reliable
Inverse time characteristic
Large VA burden
Used for a.c. only
Ex- induction cup type, two pole type, watt-hr type

Thermal Relay:
Used in motor protection
Act on thermal principle.
No need of high voltage supply
Low burden
Compact
Reliable
Economical
Definition:-
Static relay (solid state relay) is an electrical relay in
which the response is developed by
electronic/magnetic/optical or other components, without
mechanical motion of components.
Types of static relay:-
Phase comparator
Amplitude comparator
Hybrid comparator
Low power consumption
Compact and reliable
Superior characteristic and accuracy
On line computation is easy
Easily interfaced with SCADA/EMS system
etc.
Electrostatic discharge
Voltage transient
Temperature dependency
For Digital: --inverter
--flip-flops
--pulse generator
--gates
--BJT
--Schmitt trigger etc.

For Analog: --op-amps


--amplifiers
--voltage regulators
--level detectors
Greater reliability
Economy
New functions
Trends in other subsystem
Examples: Intel Pentium, Motorola Power PC
Typically, one operation per instruction
Multiple instruction per cycle
Several instructions to perform a given operation
Large program memory requirement
Very good high level software support (C compiler etc.)
expensive
Examples: Motorola 68HC16, Siemens SAB 88C166
One operation per instruction
Single instruction per cycle, low clock speed
Several instructions to perform a given operation
Narrow instruction word (8 bit or 16 bit)
Multiple cycles for multiply
Rich in on chip peripherals, good interrupt structure
Low cost
Definition:-
A static relay may have one or more
programmable units such as microprocessor. Such
relays are called programmable relays or
microprocessor based relays.
This performs several function including
protection, monitoring, controlling.
Trip
Micro
I/P Unit A/D conversion processor

Data request
And Display

Data Logger
Self-checking capability
Flexibility
Reliability
Easy to obtain different characteristics
Arithmetic & logical function ability
Digital communication
Modular frame
Low burden
Cost reduction
V
Interfacing module MUX and Fault
Micro-
I/P ports A/D Locating
LPF Controller
Conversion Algorithm
I

Data from
other end
Data inputs from the equipment to be protected

Filtering

Signal conditioning

Sampling & A/D conversion

CPU
RAM ROM EPROM

Parallel or series ports

Output
Faster Half to quarter time that of power
frequency (4 to 5 msec)
Only two samples are sufficient for decision
Compact and reliable
High shielding from surges
Low burden
Self checking capability
Applications:-
-- To obtain line diagram of entire test.
-- To display zone of the protection by Computer
Aided Transmission Protection System Design
(CATPSD)
-- For any fault it display primary and back up
automatically.
-- It display monitoring, limit violations and
emergency conditions
Modules:-
-- System configuration: Provide sketch pad for
single line diagram, editing function, file management
functions.
-- System data: can enter numerical data by data
editor, editing data, automatic data filling.
-- Short circuit analysis: Can easily locate fault,
optimize load flow.
-- Result display: display and recording of the
analysied system.
Central computer Level III

Substation Level II
Host

Relay Computer Level I

Input
Output
Security monitoring.
Emergency control
Automatic circuit restoration
On-line short circuit calculation
Supervisory control
On line load flow analysis etc.
Examples TMS320F240, TMS320F2407,TMS320VC33,
DSP56300
Often, multiple instructions per clock cycle
24 and 32 bit processors have multiple instructions in one word
Single instruction may be sufficient to perform a given
operation
CPU is designed for computation-intensive jobs (fixed/floating
point)
Relatively low to medium cost
Fourier Transforms
DFT, SDFT
FFT
Walsh transform
Kalman Filtering
Least Square Technique
Zero Crossing Techniques
3 phase voltage & current

Analog anti alising filter

A/D conversion

DSP based functions


Band pass digital filter Trip
FFT analysis signal
Relay algorithm
Examples: TMS320F240, TMS320F243,TMS320F2407,
DSP56800
Combination of DSP and Microcontroller
Often, multiple instructions per cycle
Typically, 16 bit data and instructions
CPU is designed for computation-intensive jobs
Rich set of on-chip peripherals (ADCs, I/O ports, Flash memory)
Relatively low to medium cost
Reasonable good set of software development tools
Traditionally admittance, impedance, reactance are available
which have limitations regarding power swing, fault resistance etc.
Static relay gives additional characteristic quadrilateral and
elliptical characteristics.
Then digital relays i.e. numerical relays allow us to change the
characteristic of distance relay to any shape, but it is highly
sensitive to transients.
Now a days adaptive out of step relay update its characteristic
depend upon power system conditions, i.e. it also differentiate
between stable and un-stable transients.
Blackout
Voltage Collapse
Cascade Tripping
Insufficient Generation Capacity
Restriction on Transmission capacity
Restriction on Power System Extension
static SCADA/EMS coordinated
Static View
Action initiated by Long-term Phenomena
(Simulated and Off-line)

Wide area Monitoring Wide Area Protection


& Control dynamic view
accurate measurements all kinds of stability
loadability monitoring cascaded outages
fast control of network fast, optimised & co-
controllers ordinated action

Classical Protection
Direct local actions by on-line status
information
dynamic Un-coordinated
Antenna

GPS receiver

Analog to
V,I digital Microprocessor
converter
PMU Analysis Matlab
or other

Phasor data Data stream to


PMU
other application
concentrator
Monitor/record
PMU

Measurement
PMU
Phasor data
from other utility
PMU concentrator
PDC data exchange
Phasor:- A complex equivalent of a simple sine wave quantity
such that complex modulus is the sine wave amplitude and the
complex angle (Polar form) is the sine wave phase angle.

Synchronism:- The state where the connected ac system,


machines or a combination operate at same frequency & where
the phase angle displacement between voltages are constant or
vary about steady state and stable average value.

Synchronised Phasor:- A phasor calculated from data sample


using a standard time signal as reference for the sampling
process. In this case the phasor from remote site have a defined
common phase relationship i.e. Synchrophasor

Thank
You