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MARKETING MANAGEMENT

12th edition

6
Analyzing
Consumer Markets

Kotler Keller
Chapter Questions

How do consumer characteristics influence


buying behavior?
What major psychological processes
influence consumer responses to the
marketing program?
How do consumers make purchasing
decisions?
How do marketers analyze consumer
decision making?
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Emerging Trends in Consumer Behavior

Metrosexual
Straight urban man
who enjoys shopping
and using grooming
products

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What Influences Consumer Behavior?

Cultural Factors

Social Factors

Personal Factors

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Culture

The fundamental determinant of


a persons wants and behaviors
acquired through socialization
processes with family
and other key institutions

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Subcultures

Nationalities

Religions

Racial groups

Geographic regions

Special interests

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Insight into the subculture of
wine enthusiasts

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Fast Facts About American Culture

The average American:


chews 300 sticks of gum a year
goes to the movies 9 times a year
takes 4 trips per year
attends a sporting event 7 times each
year

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Social Classes

Upper uppers
Lower uppers
Upper middles
Middle class
Working class
Upper lowers
Lower lowers

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Characteristics of Social Classes

Within a class, people tend to behave alike


Social class conveys perceptions of inferior
or superior position
Class may be indicated by a cluster of
variables (occupation, income, wealth)
Class designation is mobile over time

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Social Factors

Reference
Family
groups

Social
Statuses
roles

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Reference Groups

Membership groups

Primary groups

Secondary groups

Aspirational groups

Dissociative groups

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Family

Family of Orientation
Religion
Politics
Economics

Family of Procreation
Everyday buying
behavior

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Targeting Women and Their Families

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Roles and Statuses

What degree of status is


associated with various
occupational roles?

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Personal Factors

Age
Self- Life cycle
concept stage

Lifestyle Occupation

Values Wealth
Personality

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Behavior changes
according to life
cycle stage

Family
Psychological
Critical life events

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Brand Personality

Sincerity

Excitement

Competence

Sophistication

Ruggedness
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Lifestyle Influences

Multi-tasking

Time-starved

Money-constrained

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Figure 6.1
Model of Consumer Behavior

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Key Psychological Processes

Motivation Perception

Learning Memory

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Motivation

Maslows Herzbergs
Freuds Hierarchy Two-Factor
Theory of Needs Theory

Behavior Behavior Behavior is


is guided by is driven by guided by
subconscious lowest, motivating
motivations unmet need and hygiene
factors
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory

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Perception

Selective Attention

Selective Retention

Selective Distortion

Subliminal Perception
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Figure 6.3 Dole Mental Map

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Encoding Brand Associations

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Figure 6.4 Consumer Buying Process

Problem Recognition

Information Search

Evaluation

Purchase Decision

Postpurchase
Behavior
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Problem Recognition

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Sources of Information

Personal Commercial

Public Experiential

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Figure 6.5 Successive Sets

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Evaluation of Attributes
Table 6.3

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Figure 6.6 Stages between Evaluation of
Alternatives and Purchase

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Non-compensatory Models of Choice

Conjunctive
Lexicographic
Elimination-by-aspects

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Perceived Risk
Functional

Physical

Financial

Social

Psychological

Time

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Figure 6.7 How Customers Use and
Dispose of Products

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Other Theories of
Consumer Decision Making

Involvement Decision Heuristics


Elaboration Availability
Likelihood Model Representativeness
Low-involvement Anchoring and
marketing adjustment
strategies
Variety-seeking
buying behavior

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Mental Accounting

Consumers tend to
Segregate gains
Integrate losses
Integrate smaller losses with larger gains
Segregate small gains from large losses

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Marketing Debate

Is Target Marketing Ever Bad?

Take a position:
1. Targeting minorities is exploitative.
2. Targeting minorities is a sound
business practice.

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Marketing Discussion

What are your mental accounts?

Do you have rules you employ in


spending money?
Do you follow Thalers four principles
in reacting to gains and losses?

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