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HOSPITAL

DEFENITION OF A HOSPITAL
A modern hospital is an institution, which possesses
adequate accommodation and well qualified and
experienced personnel to provide services of
curative,restorative,preventive and promotive
character of the highest quality possible to all people
regardless of race,colour,creed or economic status. It
conducts educational and training programmes for the
health personnel, particularly required for patient care
and hospital services. It also conducts research
assisting the advancement of medical services,
hospital services and programmes of health
education.
THE CHANGING ROLE OF HOSPITAL

The role of hospitals has changed, with emphasis


shifting from:

Curative to preventive.
In-patient care to out-patient and home care.
Acute to chronic illness.
Tertiary and secondary to primary health care.
The important factors that have led to the changing
role and functions of the hospital are:

Expansion of clientele from dying and destitute to all


classes of people.

Improved socio-economic status.

Increased health awareness.

Governments duty to provide comprehensive health


care.
Improved transportation and communication services.

Rapid advances in medical science and technology.

Increase in population leading to increase in demand for


hospital beds.

Reorientation of health care delivery system with an


emphasis on primary health care
FUNCTIONS OF A HOSPITAL
1. INTRA-MURAL FUNCTIONS
i. Therapeutic
Diagnostic
Curative
Rehabilitative
Care of emergencies
ii. Preventive
Antenatal and postnatal services.
Well baby clinics and immunisation schedule.
Family welfare services.
Control of communicable diseases.
Health education
.iii. Education
Medical : Undergraduate, post-graduate and post-
doctoral.
Nursing education :Undergraduate, post-graduate and
doctoral.
Speciality
Paramedical
Community health
iv. Research
Clinical medicine
Hospital administration
2. EXTRA-MURAL FUNCTIONS
Outpatient services
Home care/outreach/domiciliary services
CLASSIFICATION OF HOSPITALS
Hospitals can be classified in many ways.
1. According to OWNERSHIP / CONTROL
Public hospitals
Voluntary (Charitable) hospitals
Private hospitals
Corporate hospitals
2. According to CLINICAL SPECIALITIES
3. According to LENGTH OF STAY
4. According to TEACHING or NON-TEACHING
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A HOSPITAL
Trained and competent professionals in adequate
numbers
The entire necessary infrastructure to facilitate
smooth functioning of the hospital.
An efficient organisation so that each member of the
hospital is able to extend the best services to the
client
A holistic approach
An atmosphere conducive to staff, self and
professional growth by arranging regular in-service
education programmes.
PLANNING OF THE HOSPITAL
1. Planning of the hospital should include :
A survey for needs of the hospital in an area and
availability of land and basic amenities like
land,water,electricity etc.
Availability of adequate funds for construction,
operation and maintenance .
Scope for expansion to keep pace with changing
medical and social patterns.
Appropriate distribution of beds,e.g. medical,
surgical and paediatric as per sex ratio-male:female
2. Regional Planning
HOSPITAL UTILISATION
Factors influencing Hospital Utilisation
EXTRA-MURAL FACTORS
Availability of hospital beds
Service coverage and bed distribution
Age of the population
Means of communication
Morbidity and mortality rate
Availability of extra-mural medical services
Housing
Supply of Physicians
Existence of proprietary hospitals
INTRA-MURAL FACTORS
Hospitals physical layout and internal organisation
Methods of payment for hospital services
Hospital bottlenecks
Medical customs and social patterns
Research and Training