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Direct method

Direct method is a method of teaching language directly


establishing a direct or immediate association between experience
and expression, between the English word, phrase or idiom and
its meaning through demonstration, dramatization without the use
of the mother tongue.
The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called
the natural method.
Refrains from using the learners' native language and
uses only the target language.
In general, teaching focuses on the development of oral
skills.
Historical context
The direct method was an answer to the dissatisfaction with the
older grammar translation method.
There was an intention to create conditions that imitate mother
tongue acquisition.
At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Sauveur and Franke
proposed that language teaching should be undertaken within
the target-language system.
It was established in Germany and France around 1900 and it
contrasted the grammartranslation method.
Characteristic of the direct
Teaching conceptsmethod are:
and vocabulary through pantomiming,
real-life objects and other visual materials.
Teaching grammar by using an inductive approach.
Centrality of spoken language.
Focus on question-answer patterns.
Aims
Direct method aims to build a direct relation between
experience and language, word and idea, thought and
expression.
This method intends for students to learn how to
communicate in the target language.
This method is based on the assumption that the learner
should experience the new language in the same way as
they experienced in their mother tongue.
Essentials
No translation
Concepts are taught by means of objects or by natural
contexts
Oral training helps in reading and writing
Grammar is taught indirectly
Techniques
Question/answer exercise.
Dictation: the teacher chooses a grade-appropriate passage and reads it
aloud.
Reading aloud: the students take turn reading sections of a passage,
play or a dialogue aloud.
Student self-correction: when a student makes a mistake the teacher
offers him/her a second chance by giving a choice.
Conversation practice: the students are given an opportunity to ask
their own questions to the other students or to the teacher.
Paragraph writing: the students are asked to write a passage in their
own words.
Principles
Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the
target language.
Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during
the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing are
introduced in intermediate phase.
Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded
progression organized around question-and-answer.
Grammar is taught inductively.
New teaching points are introduced orally.
Principles
Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration,
objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by
association of ideas.
Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.
Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
Student should be speaking approximately 80% of the
time during the lesson.
Students questions as well as answer them.
Conclusion
The Direct method of teaching English can be applied in lower
level classes where less explanations are required; the
method is good at laying a firm basis for acquiring linguistic
habits. However, the direct method of teaching can create
problems as sometimes the students fail to follow what is
being taught properly.
Teachers can modify the direct method to meet the practical
requirements of their own schools, implementing the main
principles, teaching through oral practice and banning all
translation into the target language. Obviously compromise is
needed.