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# Engineering 35

Distributed
Forces
Bruce Mayer, PE
Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer
BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

1 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Introduction
Previously considered distributed forces were
proportional to the area or volume over which
they act; i.e., Centroids
The resultant Force was obtained by summing or
integrating over the areas or volumes
The moment of the resultant about any axis was
determined by Calculating the FIRST MOMENTS
of the areas or volumes about that axis
FIRST MOMENT = An Area/Volume/Mass INCREMENT
times its LEVER ARM (kind of like Fd for Torque)
Lever Arm = the Distance to Axis of Interest

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

2 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Introduction cont.
Next consider forces which are proportional
to the Area or Volume over which they act,
but also VARY LINEARLY WITH DISTANCE
from a given axis
It will be shown that the magnitude of the resultant
depends on the FIRST MOMENT of the force
distribution with respect to the axis of interest
The Equivalent point of application of the resultant
depends on the SECOND moment of the Force
distribution with respect to the given axis
Chp9 presents methods for Finding moments
and products of inertia for areas and masses
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
3 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Area Moment of Inertia
Consider distributed forces, F ,
whose magnitudes are proportional to
the elemental areas, A, on which
they act and also vary LINEARLY with
the Distance of A from a given axis.
Example: Consider a beam subjected
to pure bending. A Mechanics-of-
Material Analysis Shows that forces
vary linearly with distance from the
F kyA NEUTRAL AXIS which passes through
k Matl/Geom CONST the section centroid. In This Case
R k y dA 0 y dA Qx first moment (Resultant Force)
M k y 2 dA dA second moment (Resultant Moment)
y 2

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

4 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example Moment of Inertia
Find the Resultant hydrostatic force on a submerged
CIRCULAR gate
Recall That Pressure, p, is Proportional to the
Depth, y
Consider and Increment of Area, A
Then The Associated Force Increment F = pA
Locate Point of Resultant Application, y P, by
Equating Moments about the x-Axis

## F pA yA Let A dA dF pdA ydA

taking dF R y dA y A dM x ydF y 2 dA More on
this Later
y 2 dAI x k x2
M x y 2 dA y P R yP
y dA y A y
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
5 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Moment of Inertia by Integration
SECOND MOMENTS or MOMENTS OF
INERTIA of an area with respect to the x
and y axes:
I x y dA
2 2
I y x dA

## Evaluation of the integrals is simplified by

choosing dA to be a thin strip parallel to
one of the coordinate axes.

I x y dA y a x dy
2 2

I y x dA x ydx
2 2

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

6 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Base Case Rectangle
Find Moment of Inertia for a Rectangular
h
Area 1 3
I x y dA y bdy bh
2 2

0
3
Apply This Basic formula to strip-like
rectangular areas That are Most
conveniently Parallel to the Axes
Consider a Horizontal Strip
dIx: b(y) a-x(y)
dIy - Subtract strips: b+ a; b- x
dI x y 2 dA y 2 a x dy
dI y dI y Strip of Length a dI y Strip of Length x
1
3
1
3
1

dI y a 3dy x 3dy a 3 x 3 dy
3

Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
7 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Polar Moment of Inertia
The polar moment of inertia is an important parameter in
problems involving torsion of cylindrical shafts, Torsion
in Welded Joints, and the rotation of slabs
In Torsion Problems, Define a Moment of Inertia
Relative to the Pivot-Point, or Pole, at O

J O r dA 2

## Relate JO to Ix & Iy Using The

Pythagorean Theorem

J O r 2 dA x 2 y 2 dA x 2 dA y 2 dA
Iy Ix
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
8 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Radius of Gyration
Consider area A with moment of inertia
Ix. Imagine that the area is
concentrated in a thin strip parallel to
the x axis with equivalent Ix, Then
Define the RADIUS OF GYRATION, k
Ix Iy
I x kx A kx
2
I y ky A ky
2

A A
Similarly in the Polar Case the
Radius of Gyration
JO
J O kO2 A kO
A
kO2 k x2 k y2
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
9 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example 1 SOLUTION:
Choose dA as a differential
strip parallel to the x axis
dI x y 2 dA dA l dy
By Similar Triangles
l h y h y h y
l b dA b dy
b h h h
Integrating dIx from y = 0
to y = h
h h
h y
dy hy 2 y 3 dy
b
I x y dA y b
2 2

0
h h0
Determine the moment h
b y y bh3
3 4
h
of inertia of a triangle h 3 4 0 I x
with respect to its base. 12
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
10 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example 2 SOLUTION:
Choose dA as a differential
annulus of width du
dJ O u 2 dA dA 2 u du
r r
J O dJ O u 2 2 u du 2 u 3 du
0 0
4
JO r
2

## a) Determine the centroidal By symmetry, Ix = Iy, so

polar moment of inertia of a 4
circular area by direct J O I x I y 2I x r 2I x
integration. 2
b) Using the result of part a,
4
determine the moment of
inertia of a circular area
I diameter I x r
with respect to a diameter.
4
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
11 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Parallel Axis Theorem
With Respect to The
OffSet Axis AA
I AA' y 2 dA y d dA
2

y2 dA 2d ydA d 2 dA

## Now Consider the

Consider the moment of
Middle Integral
inertia I of an area A
with respect to the axis 2d ydA 2d 1st Moment WRT BB'
AA But this is a 1st Moment
Next Consider Axis BB about an Axis Thru the
That Passes thru The Centroid, Which By
Area Centriod Definition = 0
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
12 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Parallel Axis Theorem cont.
I AA' y2 dA 2d ydA d 2 dA
I AA' I BB ' 0 d 2 A
but BB' is a Centroidal Axis, so
I BB ' I
Thus The Formal Statement
Next Consider the Last of the Parallel Axis Theorem
Integral

dA d
2 2
d A I I d A 2

## The Relation for I w.r.t. the Note: This Theorem

Centroidal Axis and a parallel Applies ONLY to a
Axis: CENTROIDAL Axis and
an Axis PARALLEL to it
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
13 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Parallel Axis Theorem Exmpls
Find the Moment of inertia IT of a
circular area with respect to a
tangent to the circle
I T I Ad 2 14 r 4 r 2 r 2 54 r 4
Find the Moment of inertia of a triangle
with respect to a centroidal axis
I AA I BB Ad 2

bh bh h
2
I BB I AA Ad 2 1
12
3 1
2
1
3

I 1
36 bh 3
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
14 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Composite Moments of Inertia
The moment of inertia of a composite area A about a
given axis is obtained by ADDING the moments of
inertia of the COMPONENT areas A1, A2, A3, ... , with
respect to the same axis.
This Analogous to Finding the Centroid of a Composite

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

15 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Standard Shapes are Tabulated

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

16 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example 3 SOLUTION PLAN
Determine location of the
Centroid for the Composite
section with respect to a
coordinate system with
origin at the centroid of the
BEAM section.
Apply the PARALLEL AXIS
THEOREM to determine
moments of inertia of the
The strength of a W14x38 rolled steel beam section and plate with
beam is increased by attaching a respect to COMPOSITE
plate to its upper flange. SECTION Centroidal Axis.
Determine the Moment Of Inertia
Calculate the Radius Of
and Radius Of Gyration with respect
to an axis which is parallel to the Gyration from the Moment
plate and passes through the centroid Of Inertia of the composite
of the section. section
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
17 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example 3 cont.
Determine location of the CENTROID
of the COMPOSITE SECTION with
respect to a coordinate system with
origin at the CENTROID of the BEAM
section. The First Moment Tabulation
Section A, in 2 y , in. yA, in 3
Plate 6.75 7.425 50.12
Beam Section 11.20 0 0
A 17.95 yA 50.12
Calc the Centroid
yA 50.12 in 3
Y A yA Y 2.792 in.
A 17.95 in 2

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

18 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example 3 cont.2
Apply the parallel axis theorem to
determine moments of inertia of beam
section and plate with respect to
COMPOSITE SECTION centroidal axis.
I x,beam section I x AY 2 385 11.20 2.792
2

472.3 in 4
I x,plate I x Ad 2 121 9 34 6.75 7.425 2.792
3 2

145.2 in 4
Then the Composite Moment Of Inertia About the Composite
Centroidal Axis, at x

## I x I x,beam section I x,plate 472.3 145.2 I x 617.5 in 4

Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
19 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Example 3 cont.3
Finally Calculate the Radius of
Gyration for the Composite From
Quantities Previously Determined
4
I x 617.5 in
k x
A 17.95 in 2

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

20 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Product of Inertia
Consider now an Axis
of Symmetry Such as
the x-Axis at Right

## For Every x-Value There

Exists This Condition
Define the PRODUCT
of Inertia dI xy x ydA' ydA
and can set : dA' dA
I xy xy dA dI xy 0 for all x
Ixy Can be Positive, Thus for Symmetric
Negative, or Zero Geometry Ixy =0
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
21 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Product of Inertia ||-Axis Thm
x x' x and y y ' y
Where : x & y CONST
Find The Product of
Inertia

I xy xydA x' x y ' y dA
Let x' y ' dA y x' dA x y ' dA x y dA
x & y be the Base Axes Recognize the Two
x & y Be the Centroidal middle Integrals as the
Axes 1st Moments about
Thus Axes Translation CENTROIDAL Axes
Expressions They are thus = 0
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
22 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
Prod. of I ||-Axis Theorem cont.

I xy xydA x' x y ' y dA
x' y ' dA y x' dA x y ' dA x y dA
0 0
Now The Last Integral is I xy I x ' y ' x y A
Simply The total Area
And the First Integral is As Before this Theorem
the Product of Inertia ONLY applies between
w.r.t. the CENTROIDAL the CENTROIDAL Axes
Axes and a Parallel Axes-Set
Then the Parallel Axis If one Set is NOT
Theorem Formula Centroidal Then the Middle
Integrals are NOT zero
Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE
23 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt
All Done for Today

## Engineering-35: Static Force Mechanics Bruce Mayer, PE

24 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-35_Lec-09-1_Dist-Forces.ppt