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NDB (Non Direction

Beacon)
The Non-directional beacon is an AM
transmitter with an adjustable output power
up to 100W.

It provides a continuous signal (coded with ID


signal) to enable an aircraft or helicopter to
locate the ship/offshore rig by using a DF
(directional finder).

Three models: SA-25, SA-50, & SA-100.

Components: Transmitter, Antenna coupler


and antenna.
NDB System
Antenna

Transmit Antenna
ter coupler unit
SA-100D

AC DC Monitor
AC
Rx MR5
NDB System Components
Transmitter:
Transmitter Unit: 2 sections
Exciter : it consists of :
A crystal controlled synthesizer,
A dual tone generator,

A DIP switch Programmable Morse Code


Keyer.

Power : Uses switching technology which


produces an adjustable 25 100W output
power. It consists of:
Power amplifier,
Output filter,

Modulator/regulator, and

Power supply unit.


Technical specifications
Transmitter SA100/SA100D:

Qualifications: Meets applicable


requirements of ICAO, FCC and FAA.

Frequency Range: 190-535 kHz, 520 to


1250 kHz, and 1500 to 1800 kHz. (field
programmable).

Power Output: 5 to 100 watts, (model


dependent).
Identification: Any combination of up to
5 International Morse Code letters or
numbers with 1020 Hz or 400 Hz tone.

Type of Emission: NON, A2A, A3E

Modulation: Switching
modulator/regulator, 0-95%, internal 400
or 1020 Hz tone.

Input Power: 115/230V +/-15%, single


phase 50 - 60 Hz. or 24VDC 20%.
Metering: Power output, reflected power, PA
voltage, PA current, percent modulation, audio
input level.

Working Conditions: Continuous unattended


operation, -50to +70C, 0-100% humidity.

Monitoring: Automatic shutdown if


1) Loss of tone or drop in modulation level,
2) Continuous tone,
3) Power falls below an adjustable value, or
4) VSWR rises beyond an adjustable level.
With a dual system, a shutdown signal initiates a
transfer from the primary transmitter to the
secondary transmitter.
SA-100 Dual Transmitter

The SA100D (Dual) consists of two independent


SA100 transmitters and Automatic Transfer
Unit housed in a single cabinet.
Front controls and
functions
Front switches

PRI ON/OFF
Switches on and off the transmitter (primary
transmitter if dual system).
Front switches

SEC ON/OFF
Switches on and off the battery supply (if
external battery source is used).
MODE switch
AUX : Not use.
CARR : Set the transmitter to constant Carrier mode.
IDENT : Set the transmitter to identification mode.
CONT : Set the transmitter to constant tone mode.
PA READ
Reads out the Voltage and Current of the
Power Amplifier stage.
RF METER
OFF : Switch off the meter.
REFL : Reads the reflected power.
FRWD : Reads the forward power.
READ : Reads various adjustment readings.
SET : Set the meter scale for modulation
adjustment.
AUD: Reads the Audio input line level.
MONITOR Switch
DSBL: Disable the monitor circuitry.
ENBL: Enable the monitor circuitry.
RST : Reset the monitor circuitry.
RF ON/OFF
Turns on and off the RF
signal.
Front LED indicators

V SHUT DOWN
When lit indicates that the VSWR
is exceeded the threshold level.
Front LED indicators

P SHUT DOWN
When lit indicates that the
power output is below the
pre-determined level.
Front LED indicators

N SHUT DOWN
When lit indicates that the
modulation tone level is low or
missing.
Front LED indicators

C SHUT DOWN
When lit indicates that the
output is in continuous
modulation tone.
Front LED indicators
POWER
When lit indicates that the
transmitter is turned on.
Front LED indicators
RST
When lit indicates that the
Monitor circuitry is reset.
Front Meters
SHUT DOWN STATUS
Indicates various readings correspond
to that as set by the MODE switch.
Front Meters
VOLTAGE/CURRENT
Indicates the Voltage and Current
reading as set by the PA READ switch.
Front adjustments
METER SET
Set the meter scale when
performing Tone Modulation
adjustment.
Front adjustments
RF LEVEL
Set the Out power level of the
transmitter.
Front adjustments
MOD
Set the Modulation level
of the output tone.
Antenna Coupler:
PC1000C Antenna
Coupler
Function:
It couples the 50
ohm output of the
transmitter to the
antenna.
Improper matching
of the antenna will
result in excessive
power reflection.
Technical Specifications
Antenna Coupler PC-1000C:

Input Impedance: 50 ohms.


Load Impedance: 2 to 25 ohms
resistance, 200 to 1500 pF capacitance.
Frequency: 190 to 625 kHz (up to 1800
kHz depending on model), with a 200 to
1500 pF load.
Power Input: Up to 500 watts peak, 200
watts continuous.
Metering: Antenna current and tuning.
Single meter with a four position switch
for OFF, TUNE, HIGH and LOW tuning.
Tuning: Large coil with coarse taps, fine
tapes and a rotating shorted ring
controlled by the autotune system.
Lightning Protection: Lightning gap at
the antenna terminal. Special passive
circuit that protects the transmitter final
amplifier from lighting transients.
Working Conditions: Continuous
unattended operation, -50to +70C, 0-
100% humidity. Designed for outdoor
mounting.
Front controls and
functions
Front Switches

ANTENNA CURRENT / METER


OFF : Meter is turned off.
TUNE: Tuning indicator for reflected power measurement.
HIGH: Antenna current (higher scale).
LOW: Antenna current (lower scale).
Front Switches
IMPEDANCE
For selecting coarse tapping of the tuning coil.
Front Switches

FINE TAPS
For selecting fine tapping of the tuning
coil.
Front Switches
Input DC FUSE

VERNIER Knob
For use during initial antenna
tune up.
Types of Antennas
Mast Antenna:
Used where space is limited
such as offshore structure.

Should be installed in a
clear area as large
obstacles close to it will
affect the directional
properties and tuning.

2 versions of mast antenna


land used
drilling platforms or ships.
34 foot mast antenna
H Antenna
Used on helipad of offshore structure where there is no
clear space to install the mast antenna.
Install around the perimeter of the helicopter landing deck.
Range depends on transmitter power, location,
atmospheric noise.
Approx. range: 60 120 miles.
Square helipad with end fed antenna wire
Square helipad with centre fed antenna wire
50-Foot guyed mast antenna
For land installations where space is
limited.
Suitable for low-frequency (190-625KHz)
transmitter.
Needs to install counterpoise system to
improve ground conductivity.

Symmetrical T antenna
Use where sufficient land is available.
Range: depends on antenna high.
Antenna characteristics
The resistance of the antennas
depends on many conditions, of
which the ground condition is the
most important.

Good propagation of beacon signal


depends on the ground conductivity.
High conductivity low resistance, e.g.
offshore oil rigs, platforms where the
ground system consists of a large
metal structure over sea (salt) water.

Low conductivity High resistance,


e.g. shore based helipad where the
ground is normally dry.
Counterpoise system must be
used where conductivity is low.

For offshore installation


use platform
structure and sea water
as the ground system.
For land installation consists of sixteen 60-foot
radials made of #10 copper wire with 6-foot
ground rod at each end and one at the centre.
END