Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 32

Qualitative Research Methods

Herqutanto
Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Komunitas FKUI
Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is an interdisciplinary,
transdisciplinary, and sometimes counterdisciplinary
field. It crosses the humanities and the social and
physical sciences. Qualitative research is many things at
the same time. It is multiparadigmatic in focus. Its
practitioners are sensitive to the value of the
multimethod approach. They are committed to the
naturalistic perspective, and to the interpretative
understanding of human experience. At the same time,
the field is inherently political and shaped by multiple
ethical and political positions.
Nelson et als (1992, p4)
Qualitative Research
Qualitative Researchinvolves finding out what
people think, and how they feel - or at any rate,
what they say they think and how they say they
feel. This kind of information is subjective. It
involves feelings and impressions, rather than
numbers
Bellenger, Bernhardt and Goldstucker, Qualitative Research in
Marketing, American Marketing Association
Qualitative Research
Qualitative research is multimethod in focus,
involving an interpretative, naturalistic approach
to its subject matter.
Qualitative Researchers study things (people
and their thoughts) in their natural settings,
attempting to make sense of, or interpret,
phenomena in terms of the meanings people
bring to them.
Pendekatan Qualitative Research
Qualitative research perbedaan asumsi/pendekatan
dibandingkan quantitative research
Fokus pada cara memandang dunia di mata peneliti
Berusaha membangun logika dari fenomena dan makna yang

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
diperoleh manusia terhadapnya
Pendekatan Holistic mempelajari orang, kelompok, budaya
lain pada situasi asli (natural setting)

6-5
Perbandingan Qualitative dan
Quantitative Research
QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
Multiple realities Single reality
Reality is socially constructed Reality is objective
Reality is context interrelated Reality is context free
Holistic Reductionistic
Strong philosophical perspective Strong theoretical base
Reasoning is inductive Reasoning is deductive and
inductive
Discovery of meaning is the basis Cause-and-effect relationships
of knowledge are the bases of knowledge
Develops theory Tests theory
2007 Pearson Education Canada 6-6
Continued....
QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
Theory developed during study Theory developed a priori
Meaning of concepts Measurement of variables
Process oriented Outcome oriented
Control unimportant Control important
Rich descriptions Precise measurement of variables
Basic element of analysis is words Basic element of analysis is
numbers
Uniqueness Generalization
Trustworthiness of findings Control of error
2007 Pearson Education Canada 6-7
Langkah dalam Studi Quantitative dan
Qualitative
Quantitative (Linear)
Define a Research Problem/Question
Review the Literature
Formulate Hypothesis or Refine Question
Make Operational Definitions
Design or Select Instruments for Data
Obtain Ethical Approval
Collect Data
Analyze Data
Interpret Findings Refer to Literature Again
Determine Implications Draw Conclusions
Source: Based on H.J. Streubert and D.R. Carpenter (1999). Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the Humanistic Imperative. 2nd
ed. Philadelphia: J.B.Lippincott.

2007 Pearson Education Canada 6-8


Continued......

2007 Pearson Education Canada 6-9


A model of qualitative research
design
Written Record

Data Analysis
Approach

Research design
Data Collection
Technique

Research Method

10
Philosophical
Assumptions
Aktivitas inti pada Qualitative
Research
Pendekatan Qualitative:
A. Studi Literatur
B. Pemantapan pengetahuan peneliti

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
C. Peran peserta: subject atau informan?
D. Pemilihan peserta
E. Pengaturan pengumpulan data
F. Analisis data
G. Saturasi
6-11
A. Literature Review
Conducted after the data have been collected
and analyzed
Rationale for delaying the literature review:
To avoid leading the participants in the

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
direction of what has already been discovered
Purpose of literature review:
To show how current findings fit into what is
already known
6-12
B. Explicating Researchers
Beliefs
Bracketing setting aside ones biases and
personal views on a topic
Investigator keeps a diary of personal thoughts
and feelings about the topic

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
Purpose: the researcher is made aware when
interpretations of the data reflect personal
beliefs rather than those of the participants

6-13
C. Subject or Informant?
People being studied are viewed as participant or
informant, not subject
Viewed as active participants in the research
They inform the researcher about their culture

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
Researcher seeks to understand the participants
cultural knowledge
Hence, requires learning about the participants
culture through on-going discussion and
involvement with them
6-14
D. Selection of Participants
Method is called purposive sampling
Participants must have first-hand experience
with the research topic (e.g., homelessness,
gang involvement, attending medical school)

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
and be able to talk about it
Researcher establishes clear criteria and
rationale for sample selection
Goal is not generalization of findings but rich
descriptions of phenomenon by those who have
6-15
experienced it
types of purposive sampling
maximum variation
homogeneous
critical case
theory-based
(dis)confirming case
snowball (chain)
extreme (deviant) case
typical case
intensity
politically important case
random purposeful
stratified purposeful
criterion
opportunistic
combination (mixed)
convenience
Prinsip dasar: jumlah partisipan
dianggap cukup bila
seluruh partisipan merupakan
representasi seluruh parisipan
potensial pada kondisi tertentu
sampai pada titik di mana data yang
dikumpulkan telah jenuh (data
saturation)
Saturasi
Merujuk pada kondisi pada analisis data saat
deskripsi partisipan ternyata berulang kembali
dan sama dengan data sebelumnya
Indikasi bahwa analisis data telah lengkap

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
Saat analisis data telah lengkap, pengumpulan
data bisa dihentikan

6-20
Ancaman terhadap validitas
qualitative studies...

observer bias
informasi tidak valid akibat perpektif
peneliti yang dibawa ke dalam
penelitian
observer effects
dampak dari keterlibatan pengamat
atau participan yang diteliti
Strategi meningkatkan validitas dan
memperkecil bias...

Menambah waktu observasi

Melibatkan lebih banyak partisipan yang


lebih representatif
Fokus membangun kepercayaan partisipan
agar dapat memperoleh akses yang lebih
detil dan jujur
Mengidentifikasi bias dan preferensi,
mendiskusikannya dengan orang lain

Bersama peneliti lain membandingkan


catatan lapangan dan kesan yang didapat
dari pengamatan independen
Setelah observasi lengkap, tawarkan
partisipan agar dapat memvalidasi akurasi
dari verbatim (kata-kata asli partisipan
Menggunakan variasi sumber data agar dapat
mengkonformasi satu dengan lainnya dan
memperkuat informasi partisipan
(triangulation)
E. Setting for Data Collection
Informant-driven rather than theory-driven
Investigator assumes ignorance of the culture
or experience being studied
Informant teaches the investigator

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
Data is collected in the field the natural
world where people live and experience life
Investigator should:
be nonintrusive
spend a prolonged time in the field
Some researchers used multiple methods 6-24
Three Qualitative Methods
TABLE 6.1 COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE METHODS

METHOD STUDY FOCUS ANALYTIC FOCUS DISCIPLINES

Ethnography culture/cultural describe a Cultural


group culture/cultural Anthropology
group

Grounded Theory cultural groups generate theory Sociology/


about a basic Symbolic
social process Interaction/
Criminology

Phenomenology individual discern the Philosophy/


experience essence of the Psychology/
lived experience Sociology
2007 Pearson Education Canada 6-25
Three Qualitative Methods:
Ethnography
Focus: study human behaviour in the cultural context in
which it is embedded
Ethnography is the work of describing a culture the

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
way of life of a cultural group
Associated with Cultural Anthropology
Example: David Counts and Dorothy Ayer Counts: An
Ethnography of RVing Seniors

6-26
Three Qualitative Methods:
Grounded Theory
Focus: develop a theory to explain underlying social
processes of a cultural group
Useful in areas where little is known or when a new
perspective is needed

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
Used for exploratory, descriptive studies
Because the theory emerges from the data, it is said
to be grounded in the data
Foundation in Symbolic Interactionism
Example: Kerry Daly and the social construction of
fatherhood 6-27
Three Qualitative Methods:
Phenomenology
Focus: reveal the meaning of the lived experience from
the perspective of participants
Describe the essences of lived experience
Essences: elements related to the true meaning of

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
something that gives common understanding to the
phenomenon under study
Conveyed with descriptive language
Drawn from Philosophy; used across disciplines
Example: J.E. Solchany: A phenomenological study of 6-28
womens preadoptive experiences
Memilih metodologi penelitian yang tepat

Penelitian kuantitatif
Deskriptif (who, how many, where, when, how
often)
Analitik (why hubungan kausal)
Aplikasi (test interventions perubahan yang
terjadi)
Metode Kuantitatif saja seringkali tidak dapat
memberikan pengertian yang utuh terhadap
hubungan yang kompleks dari faktor2 yang
mempengaruhi kondisi sehat dan sakit
Metode kualitatif:
Menjelaskan faktor2 yang mempengaruhi kondisi
sehat dan sakit
Membantu pemahaman bagaimana individu dan
komunitas memahami konsep sehat dan sakit
Mempelajari interaksi antara berbagai komponen
yang relevan terhadap sebuah masalah kesehatan
Pertanyaan yang dapat dijawab:
Mengapa hal tersebut dapat terjadi? Mengapa
beberapa orang terkena dan yang lain tidak?
Bagaimana tenaga kesehatan dapat berperan?
Contoh:
Smoking and lung cancer
Penelitian2 epidemiologis telah banyak
membuktikan hubungan antara smoking dan lung
cancer
Metode kualitatif dapat membantu menjelaskan:
Seberapa kuat dampak iklan terhadap perilaku
merokok
Alasan mengapa orang tetap merokok walaupun
memiliki pengetahuan yang cukup
nilai merokok secara sosial (mis. di kalangan
wanita dan remaja)
Kelebihan dan Kelemahan
Fokus pada seluruh pengalaman manusia dan
maknanya yang digambarkan oleh partisipan
Memberikan kesempatan pada peneliti untuk
mendapatkan data yang sangat terinci (deep insights)
yang tidak mungkin dilakukan dengan menggunakan

Canada
2007 Pearson Education
metode quantitative
Kekuatan utama qualitative adalah validitas data yang
dihasilkannya
Realitas yang sebenarnya bisa terungkap
Keterbatasan utama adalah masih ada pendapat
tentang kurang objecktif dan tidak dapat digeneralisasi 6-32
Peneliti menjadi alat penelitian utama sehingga
mungkin mengakibatkan kurangnya objektivitas