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To share the load between the cells, the MSC may request the BSC to perform a
specified number of handovers from one specified cell (high load) to other
specified adjacent cells which have less load.
The BSC examines if there are any calls that can be handed over from the serving
cell to some of these specified adjacent cells. In this case it suffices that the
specified adjacent cells satisfy the following equation (3) in addition to the
basic equation 1.
AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > TrhoTargetLevel (n) + MAX (0, Pa) ; Where Pa = ( MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00 (ADJ) (n) - P )
AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > RxLevMinCell (n) + MAX (0, Pa) Where Pa = ( MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00 (ADJ) (n) - P )
PBGT (n) > HoMarginPBGT (n)

The parameter TRHO target level(n) (TRHO) (set for each adjacent cell) is the level which the signal level
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) of the adjacent cell (n) must exceed before the traffic reason handover to the adjacent cell
(n) is possible.
MS txpwr max gsm(n) (PMAX1)-P or MS txpwr max gsm1x00(n) (PMAX2)-P, depending on the frequency band, is the difference
between the maximum RF power that an MS is permitted to use on a traffic channel in the adjacent cell (n) and the
maximum power of the MS (P).
The following figure shows the
process leading to a traffic reason handover.
Traffic reason handover from the serving cell to the adjacent cell in
question is disabled when the value of the parameter TRHO target level is
'not used.
The target cells for traffic reason handover are ranked only according to
radio link properties. Priority levels are not used.
Traffic Reason Handover
(BSC Initiated)
Serving cell with load >
Must not be used together with Ranking of adjacent
MSC initiated handover cells only according RX
amhTrhoPbgtMargin = N Check of adjacent cells with
condition 1a for trhoTargetLevel
condition 2a for
Adjacent cell with
sufficient RX level / power
budget load <
Yes No

Power budget Power budget Handover

< >=hoMarginPGB failure
hoMarginPGBT T
Traffic Power
reason budget
handover handover
BSC Initiated TRHO
To avoid an overload situation, the BSC can initiate a handover, if
the load of the serving cell exceeds the percentage defined by the
parameter amhUpperLoadThreshold (AUT)(BSC)(0..100)(80).
Like for the MSC initiated traffic reason handover, the adjacent cells
are ranked only according their RX levels. A target cell must fulfil
condition (1a) for the threshold trhoTargetLevel, and condition (2a)
for the power budget margin set by the parameter
amhTrhoPbgtMargin (ATPM)(HOC)(-24..24,N)(N). If the power
budget exceeds the margin set by hoMarginPGBT, then a power
budget instead of a traffic reason handover is carried out. The load
of the target cell must not exceed the percentage defined by the
parameter amhMaxLoadOfTgtCell (AML)(SEG)(0..100,N)(N). The
process is summarized by Fig. 6-48.
BSC initiated traffic reason must not be used together with MSC
initiated traffic reason handover. To deactivate it,
amhTrhoPbgtMargin must be set to its default value N.
Advanced Multilayer Handling
BSC Initiated Traffic Reason HO
Relieve load on contested cell(s)
Distribute load over the network
If the traffic load of the serving cell
exceeds a threshold, the different
(smaller) power budget margin is used
for all adjacent cells instead of the
existing HO margin pbgt (PMRG).

Multilayer Load Control

During low traffic hours, prevent the
use of the microcellular layer by
keeping MS in the macro layer (once
they camp on it)
Reduce unnecessary handover
between layers
Traffic Reason Handover (AMH)
MO Abbreviated Range And Step Description Default BSC - MML
Class Name value Name
ADCE trhoTargetLev -109...-47 dBm, The minimum signal level when a traffic reason 0 dBm TRHO
el step 1 dBm handover is allowed to an adjacent cell.
N = not in use
BSC amhMaxLoad 0...100 %, step 1 The maximum traffic load in adjacent cell 70 % AML
OfTgtCell % allowed for a target cell of traffic reason
handover (TRHO).
BSC amhTrhoGuar 0...120 s, step 1 s The guard time after a BSC-controlled or an 30 s TGT
dTime MSC-controlled TRHO, during which a
handover back to the original cell is not
BSC amhUpperLo 0...100 %, step 1 The upper threshold for the load of the base 80 % AUT
adThreshold % station. The parameter is used to trigger BSC-
controlled traffic reason handovers.
BTS amhMaxLoad N, 0...100 %, step The maximum traffic load in the adjacent cell N AML
OfTgtCell 1% that is allowed to be the target cell for a traffic
reason handover (TRHO). MML NOTE: Range:
0...100 % and N default: N
HOC amhTrhoPbgt -24...24 dBm, step The power budget margin used when the load 255 dBm ATPM
Margin 1 dBm of the cell exceeds the value defined with the
AMH Upper Load Threshold (AUT).
Multilayer Load Control (AMH)
MO Abbreviated Range And Step Description Default BSC - MML
Class Name value Name

BSC amhLowerLoad 0...100 %, step 1 Defines the lower threshold for the load of 20 % ALT
Threshold % the base station. The parameter is used to
trigger advanced multilayer handling
functionality with IUO and/or Dual Band/
microcell features.

HOC amhTrafficContr Y, N Indicates whether the Advanced Multilayer N ATCM

olMCN Handling is used with micro cells or dual

If there is little traffic in serving cell, the following handovers are not allowed:
- FMMS, DADL/B, Umbrella, fast moving MS support / MS speed detection

MS is kept in coverage layer