Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 44

Tension Members

Last Time

Structural Elements Subjected to Axial Tensile Forces

Trusses

Bracing for Buildings and Bridges

Cables in Suspension and Cable-Stayed Bridges


TENSION MEMBERS TYPES
Last Time
TENSION MEMBERS TYPES
Last Time

Structural Shapes & Build Up Members


rigidity, small lateral loads, load reversal

Slenderness L/r > 300 AISC Spec D1


Does not apply to rods in tension
Limit States
Last Time

STRENGTH

Failure at Main Body


Failure at Connection
etc
TENSION MEMBERS - LIMIT STATES
AISC Specs Chapter D
Last Time

Failure at main body


if connection is strong enough

After yielding deformations become too large and member does not serve its
design purpose.
Failure at yielding
nominal strength Pn=FyAg
Fy = Yielding Strength, Ag = Gross Area
TENSION MEMBERS - LIMIT STATES
AISC Specs Chapter D
Last Time

Failure at Connection
if connection is weak it will fracture

Failure at ultimate strength

nominal strength Pn=FuAe


Fu = Ultimate Strength, Ae = Effective Area
Gross Area Specs D3.1 p 16.1.27
Last Time

Gross Area Ag:


Total Area of Main Body of Member
Net Area Specs D3.2 p 16.1.27
Last Time

Net Area An :
Welded Connections An = Ag
Bolded Connections
An = Ag - Area of Holes
Net Area
Last Time

Size of hole is larger than size of the bolt dh=db +1/16


Additional 1/16 of material is damaged during drilling or
punchning of holes (Commentary D3.2 p 16.1-250)
Staggered Fasteners

Geometry Constraints

Space Limitations
Staggered Fasteners

Inclined Fracture Path


Net Area - Effect of Staggered Holes
AISC Specs D3.1
Last Time

T T An wnt

s2
wn wg d
4g
p T Reduced diameter
T
g

s2
wn wg d
s g = gage 4g
s = spacing
Failure paths on net section
Example
Last Time

11 holes

8/11 of load

Different failure lines may be subjected to different loads!


11 s2
wn wg d 18.91 wg 16
8 4g
Net Area - Gage Distance for an Angle

Unfold Angle and Visualize as a plate


Net Area - Gage Distance for an Angle

For holes on different legs

g ga gb t
ga

gb
Example

s 2
An Ag d
4 g
7 1
6.75 2 0.5 5.75 in 2
8 8
Example

s 2
An Ag d 10
4 g An 5.363 5.959 in 2
9

6.75 0.51 0.51.0
1.5
2

0.51
4 2.5
5.363 in 2
Example

s 2
An Ag d
4 g

6.75 0.51 0.51.0
1.5
2
1.5
2
1.5
2

0.51.0 0.51.0 0.51


4 2.5 4 4.75 43
5.015 in 2
Effective Net Area Specs D3.3 p 16.1.28

Ae=AU

A = Area that depends on type of connection


A=Ag for welded
A=An for bolted

U = shear lag coefficient (accounts for eccentricities)


U Accounts for eccentricities

U AISC D3.3 Table D3.1


Shear Lag Factor

1. General category for any type of tension member except plates and
round HSS with
2. Plates
3. Round HSS with l 1.3D
4. Alternative values for single angles
5. Alternative values for W,M,S and HP shapes
1. General category for any type of tension member
except plates and round HSS with l 1.3D

x
U 1
l

x Distance from centroid of connected area to the plane of the


connection

l Length of the connection


1. General category for any type of tension member
except plates and round HSS with l 1.3D
1. General category for any type of tension member
except plates and round HSS with l 1.3D
2. Plates

U=1.0
since cross section has one element and it is connected

Special Cases
a. Longitudinal welds on sides only

U 1.0 l 2w
U 0.87 1.5w l 2 w
U 0.75 w l 1.5w
2. Plates

U=1.0
since cross section has one element and it is connected

Special Cases
b. Transverse welds only (uncommon)

U 1.0
An net area of directly
connected members
3. Round HSS with l 1.3D
4. Alternative values for single angles

2 or 3 fasteners in 4 fasteners in direction


direction of loading of loading
5. Alternative values for W,M,S and HP shapes

Connected through flange with 3 or more


fasteners in direction of loading
5. Alternative values for W,M,S and HP shapes

Connected through flange with 3 or more


fasteners in direction of loading
5. Alternative values for W,M,S and HP shapes

Connected through web with 4 or more


fasteners in direction of loading
Example

Determine Effective Net Area


Example

An Ag Aholes
1 5 1
An 5.77 2 5.02 in 2

2 8 8
Example

An 5.02 in 2

Only one element is connected


Net area must be reduced

x 1.67
U 1 1 0.7217
l 6
x 1.67 in from Part 1 of manual (DIM)
l 6 in

Ae UAn 0.7217 5.02 3.623 in 2


Example

An 5.02 in 2

Alternatively

3 bolts in direction of load

U 0.6

Ae UAn 0.65.02 3.012 in 2


Block Shear
Block Shear
Chapter D User Note -> J4.3 (p. 16.1-112)

Failure occurs by rupture on the shear area and rupture on the


tension area

Both surfaces (shear and tension) contribute to total strength


Block Shear
Chapter D User Note -> J4.3 (p. 16.1-112)

Both surfaces (shear and


tension) contribute to
Anv: net shear area total strength

Ant : net tension area


Block Shear
Chapter D User Note -> J4.3 (p. 16.1-112)

Anv: net shear area


Ant : net tension area

For angles and gusset plates

Rn 0.6Fu Anv Fu Ant


Block Shear
Chapter D User Note -> J4.3 (p. 16.1-112)

Anv: net shear area


Ant : net tension area

AISC
Rn 0.6 Fu Anv U bs Fu Ant 0.6 Fy Agv U bs Fu Ant

Ubs=1 for angles, gusset plates and most coped beams


See AISC Commentary J4.3 for other less common cases
Example

Compute block shear strength per LRFD and ASD


Example

Agv 7.5 2.813


3
8

3 7 1
Anv 7.5 2.5 1.875 in 2
8 8 8

3 7 1
Ant 1.5 0.5 0.3750 in 2
8 8 8
Example

Agv 2.813 Anv 1.875 in 2

Ant 0.3750 in 2
58

Rn 0.6 Fu Anv U bs Fu Ant 0.6 Fy Agv U bs Fu Ant


Rn 0.6581.875 1580.375 87.00 kips

Rn UpperLimit 0.6362.813 1580.375 82.51 kips


Example

Agv 2.813 Anv 1.875 in 2

Ant 0.3750 in 2
58

Nominal Strength
Rn 82.51 kips

LRFD ASD
Rn 82.51
Rn 0.7582.51 61.9 kips 41.3 kips
2