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FORMWORK

Balaji
Mtech Structural
Table of Content
Introduction
Qualities of Good Formwork
Uses of Formwork
Major Considerations in Formwork
Stages of Formwork
Types of Formwork
Removal of Formwork and Its time period
Advantages of Steel Formwork
Loads on Formwork
Formwork design

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Introduction
Its is an artificial support provided below and around the precast
or cast in situ concrete work.

Formwork is commonly made of

Steel

Wood

Formwork construction & casting is of prime importance in


concrete industry. It share a significant amount of concrete cost.

Formwork specification Comprises to IS456-2000


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Qualities of Good Formwork:
It should be water tight

It should be strong

Its should have uniform contact surface

It should be according to the size and


desired shape of the member.
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Uses of Formwork
Formwork molds the concrete to
the desired shape and size, and
controls its position and alignment.
It is used to transfer the temporary
external loads.
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Requirements of Good Formwork:
Strong enough to with stand all external loads

Deflection should be minimum.

Light in weight, so that easy to transfer.

Joints should be stiff, so that lateral deformation and leak is

minimum .

It should be practically water proof, so that it should not absorb


water from concrete.

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Three Different Stages of Formwork

a) Assembly and erection

b) Concrete placement

c) Stripping and dismantling

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Types of Formwork:

Temporary Structure

Temporary structure required to safely support


concrete until it reaches adequate strength

Permanent Structure

Permanent Structures like Staircase made of


wood

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Formwork detail for different structural
members
In concrete construction formwork is commonly
provided for the following structural members.
o Wall

o Column

o Slabs & Beams

o Stairs

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Formwork for Wall
It consists of
Timber sheeting
Vertical posts
Horizontal
members
Rackers
Wedges
Stakes
After completing one
side of formwork
reinforcement is
provided at the place
then the second side
formwork is provided. 10
Wall forms:
Wall forms principally resist the lateral pressure
generated by fresh concrete as a liquid or semi
liquid material.

The pressure can be quite large, certainly many


times the magnitude of live loads on permanent
floors.

So design often involves closely spaced and well-


supported members.
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Wall forms:

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Formwork for Column
It consists of the
following
Side & End Planks
Yoke
Nut & Bolts
Two end & two
side planks are
joined by the
yokes and bolts.

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Column forms:

Column-forms materials tend to vary with the column shape.

Wood or Steel is often used with square or rectangular


column.

Round column are more structural efficient compared to


square, since the internal pressures can be resisted by the
hoop membrane stress.

Round steel forms are generally used for larger columns and
bridge piers and come in diameters about 0.36m to 3mts..

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Formwork for Slabs & beams:
It consists of
Sole plates
Wedges
Props
Head tree
Planks
Batten
Ledgers
Beam formwork rests
on head tree
Slab form work rests
on battens and joists
If prop height are
more than 8 provide
horizontal braces.
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FORMWORK FOR SLAB:

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FORMWORK FOR STAIRS:

It consists of
Vertical &
inclined posts
Inclined members

Wooden Planks or
sheeting
Stringer
Riser Planks
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FORMWORK FOR STAIRS:

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Loads on Formwork

Formwork is subjected to following loads:

a) Dead weight of concrete

b) Hydrostatic pressure of the concrete

c) Live load due to working laborer

d) Vibrations transmitted to formwork during pouring


concrete

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Formwork Design

Guiding points in the Design of formwork

For design purpose, temporary live load due to

labor and equipment including impact may be

taken from 3700N/m2 to 4000N/m2

Dead weight of wet concrete (26000 N/m3)

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Advantages of steel form work:

It can be used for a no. of times.


It is non absorbent.
Smooth finish surface obtained.
No shrinkage of formwork occurs.
Easy to use.
Its volume is less
Its strength is more.

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Removal of formwork:
Time of formwork removal depends on the following factors

1. Type of Cement
1. Rapid hardening cements require lesser time as compared to OPC
(Ordinary Portland Cement)

2. Ratio of concrete mix


1. Rich ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to weak ratio
concrete.

3. Weather condition
1. Hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as compared to
cold and humid weather conditions.
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Time of Removal of formwork:
Sr. OPC Rapid
No Structural Member (Ordinary Portland Hardening
Cement) Cement

1 Beam sides, walls & Columns 2-3 Days 2 Days

2 Slab (Spanning Up to 4.5M 7 Days 3 Days

3 Slab (Spanning Over 4.5m) 14 Days 5 Days

4 Beams & Arches (Complete 14 Days 5-8 Days


formwork removal) (up to 6 m
span)
5 Beams & Arches (Complete 21 Days 8-10 Days
formwork removal) (more than 6
m span)

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THANK YOU
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