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Henry VIII

EARLY YEARS
Playtime
Growing up Schooling
Henry was born in 1491 Henry did not go to school.
Henry had a fool to amuse him
in Greenwich Palace By the time he was five when he was bored with his
near London. His father years old tutors taught him books. The fool told jokes and
was King Henry VII. His and his older brother did funny things, like a clown.
mother was Elizabeth of Arthur. Henry was very
York. clever. He learned French, Henry also had a whipping boy.
Henry's father had been Latin and Greek. He was The whipping boy was a
king for only six years good at maths, poetry and servant. If Henry was naughty,
when Henry was born. music. He also loved to the tutor hit the whipping boy.
He had won a battle to play games. No one dared hit the prince!
make himself king.
*Henry had a sharp eye for detail and an encyclopaedic memory which eased the learning
process. His early education was supervised by his learned maternal grandmother Margaret
Beaufort, who adored the young Prince Henry
*During his early education Henry VIII would have first been taught the alphabet and the
rudiments of English Grammar together with reading and writing skills using parchment and
a horn-book.
*The horn-book displayed the alphabet in both small letters and capital letters.
*Erasmus described Henry VIII as "a lively mentality which reached for the stars, and he was
able beyond measure to bring to perfection whichever task he undertook."
* Thomas More described Henry VIII as follows "He is in every respect a most accomplished
prince was a genial child who enjoyed education but also had a passion for sporting
activities. Education in these skills included riding, jousting, tennis, archery, hunting and
dancing.
*Henry VIII was taught a range of different lessons as part of a standard curriculum for the
royal children. His education included lessons in languages, grammar, theology, history,
rhetoric, logic, philosophy, arithmetic, logic, literature, geometry, and music.
Jousting - Hornbook -
Henry Child
Religion

The Tudor era witnessed the most sweeping religious


changes in England since the arrival of Christianity, which
affected every aspect of national life. The Reformation
eventually transformed an entirely Catholic nation into a
predominantly Protestant one.
monasteries. To help him in his struggle with the Catholic Church, Henry
needed help from Protestants.

He split away from Rome because he wanted to divorce Catherine of


Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. The Act of Supremacy made him head of
the Church in England.

Both Thomas Cromwell (his Chancellor) and Thomas Cranmer (the


Archbishop of Canterbury) were Protestants.

He closed the monasteries to get their wealth.

These developments were not popular among ordinary people and in


1536 there was a rebellion called the Pilgrimage of Grace.

Wolsey was a cardinal and statesman, Henry VIII's lord chancellor


and one of the last churchmen to play a dominant role in English political
life.
Consequences of the Religious Dissolution
The long term effects of the dissolution have been:
philosophical concepts of the power of the king over Church have
played an important part in Henrys decision to suppress the
monasteries.
The monasteries were sold and the buyers (the nobility and gentry)
were the most benefited.
These buyers supported Henry VIII in Rome.
Henry VIIIs wives
Catherine of Aragon: She was a Spanish princess who had been married
to Henrys brother Prince Arthur. She had a daughter with Henry called
Mary. As she couldnt have a male heir, they got divorced.

Anne Boleyn: She was a beautiful lady in waiting to the former Queen.
She gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth. When she miscarried a
second child, Henry accused her of witchcraft, and had her beheaded for
adultery and incest.

Jane Seymour: Henry married her just eleven days after the execution of
Anne. She gave birth to a baby boy Edward VI, and she was poisoned
twelve days later.
Henry VIIIs wives
Anne of Cleves: Her parents were John III of Cleves and Marie of
Julich. She married Henry to form a tie between England and the
Protestant princes of Germany. Six months later, Henry found his
alliance unsuccessful, so they got divorced.

Catherine Howard: She was Anne Boleyns cousin and maid of


honour to Anne of Cleves. Henry accused his wife of adultery and
had her beheaded.

Catherine Parr: She outlived Henry, so she said to have survived.


Henry had six wives because....

He had the first wife because he was betrothed to her by his father.

He had the second wife because he fell in love and also needed a legitimate
male heir.

He had the third wife because he still needed a male heir.

He had the fourth wife because of diplomatic reasons.

He had the fifth wife because he fell in love again.

He had the sixth wife because he was old and sick and needed a companion
and nurse who wouldn't give him too much trouble.

Henry's main aim was to make sure that the Tudors would keep on ruling
DOMESTIC AFFAIRS (1509-1529)
Henrys domestic policy was success related to the legal system and Parliament but short
term. However, He failed in most areas especially with the nobles.

There were many aims Henry VIII tried to achieve through his domestic policies such as:

To Increase efficiency of government.

Increase revenue.

Increase power.

Improve law and order.

Decrease the political power of the nobility and show support for the nobility.
Parliament
Henry added imperial concepts of kingship to existing feudal ones.

His ministers and officials were allowed freedom of action only within accepted
limits. Henry always had the last word.

Henry VIII's Reformation Parliament: He changed the nature of Parliament and


of English government.

Parliament was not called frequently enough. It was called twice both times
asking money for the war with France. Taxes cannot be rose and subsidy cannot
be collected. (Kings power increases - No opposition).

Henry and Parliament finally threw off Englands allegiance to Rome with some
revolutionary Acts: The Act of Annates (1532), The acts of Appeals (1533), The act
of Supremacy (1534), The First Act of Succession (1534), The Treasons Act
BRITISH ISLANDS:
WALES: English laws and

administration were

extended to Wales in 1547

SCOTLAND: Treaty of Greenwich 1543

The Rough Wooing.

IRELAND:
Henry VII and Cardinal Thomas Wolsey

Finance and Military:

Henry VIII decreased the size of the privy chamber from 12 people to 6. This was used for all of the
crowns personal information which the king can oversee. This was reduced to make the government more
efficient as there were too many people for the work load.
Henry decided in 1519 to expel the minions.
Henrys administration policies was more of a failure as nearly every policy did not show support for the
nobles.
Wolsey chose a parliamentary subsidy. The subsidy was based off of up-to date evaluations of wealth.
Henry had to gain money for the war in France. He went to parliament to ask them for money and wanted
800,000 and received 130,000
The Amicable grant was created to ask people to donate to the country for the war. However this failed as
it annoyed the nobles who did not like parting with any money.
Wolsey was able to collect 322,000 from subsidies, 240,000 from clerical taxation and 260,000 from
forced loans Expenditure was still 1.7 million
Henry finished his war in France due to financial problems.