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Cells use energy for many things:

Making new parts

Repairing parts
Getting rid of wastes
To drive chemical reactions
Energy flow in the living world
Almost all energy needed for life comes from the sun
Heterotrophs get their energy from foods they consume

Autotrophs (like plants) get their food directly from the

The combination of chemical reactions through which
an organism builds or breaks down materials as it
carries out its life processes is known as
Catabolic reactions-break down large molecules into
smaller ones (ex. Cellular respiration)

Anabolic reactions-you build large molecules from

smaller ones (photosynthesis)
A steady supply of ATP is needed to ensure that a
cell can perform all the things necessary for life.
(how ATP works 2min)

ATP ------> ADP + P + Energy

ADP + P + Energy ------> ATP

2 important processes to give life energy:
the process green plants use to convert light energy
into energy storing compounds such as carbohydrates,
fats, and proteins.
6H20 + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 602
Light energy

Cellular Respiration
the process in whichliving cells release the energy in
compounds to perform life functions.
C6H12O6 + 602 6H20 + 6CO2 + ATP
(in the chloroplast of a cell)
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert
water and carbon dioxide into high energy sugars
and oxygen.
Plants use the sugar to produce complex
carbohydrates from the air or water in which they
Light and Pigments
Photosynthesis requires light and chlorophyll
Sunlight, which you see as white light, is a mixture of
different wavelengths of light
These make up the visible spectrum (what you can see)-
your eyes see the different wavelengths of the visible
spectrum as different colors.

Light and Pigments (cont)
Plantsgather light by using pigments
Main pigment is chlorophyll

2 types, chlorophyll a and b

Chlorophyll absorbs light well in the blue-violet and red

regions of the spectrum
Does not absorb well in the green region of the
Green light is reflected by leaves, which is why they
look green.
Plants also have red, yellow and orange pigments that
absorb light in other regions of the spectrum
Any compound that absorbs light also absorbs the
energy from that light
When chlorophyll absorbs light, light is transferred directly
to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule, raising the energy
levels of these electrons
These high energy electrons make photosynthesis work!
Equation for photosynthesis
(Bill Nye History of Photo 3 min)

CO2 + H2O C6H12O6 + O2

Carbon+ water glucose + oxygen
Chloroplast is the site of Photosynthesis in plants
1. Thylakoid-flattened membranes sac inside the
Proteins organize chlorophyll and other pigments into
clusters known as photosystems-these are the light collecting
units of the chloroplast
2. Grana-stacks of thylakoids. Used during light
reactions of photosynthesis.
3. Stroma-Fluid surrounding thylakoid.
The leaf is the organ for photosynthesis
it is thin an flat to capture light
Parts of a Leaf
Stomata-a pore in the leaf surrounded by guard cells that allows
for gas exchange between the environment and the plant.
Guard cells-forms the boundaries of the stomata (opens and
cuticle-waxy coating on the leaf, helps prevent water loss
Mesophyll-middle of the leaf; includes palisade and spongy
parenchyma where cells with chloroplasts are located
Veins-capillary action transports food and water thru xylem and
phloem from the roots.
bMPwmwx88 (5 min. photo video)

1. Water comes from the roots

through the stem into the leaf (uses
2. carbon dioxide from the air enters
the leaf through the stomata.
3. Sunlight strikes chlorophyll in
leaves, ENERGY is released.
4. Energy makes the carbon dioxide
and water join together to make
glucose (sugars)
5. releases oxygen
There are 2 steps in Photosynthesis
1. Light Reactions (in chloroplast)
Needs light (occurs during the day)
Pigments in photosystem II absorb light
Electrons are in a high energy state and require a special carrier called
carrier molecules
electrons are passed to the electron transport chain
High energy electrons passed to photosystem I from photosystem II
ATP and NADPH are formed -sent to dark reactions
NADP is converted into NADPH by trapping sunlight in the form of chemical
Energy is also used to split water and oxygen is released into the
2. Dark Reactions (in stroma)
can happen at ANY time of the day or night
Calvin Cycle
Carbon from atmosphere combines with RuDP carbon
Forms 6 carbon compound and splits into 2 3-carbon
Products from light reactions (NADPH and ATP) power the
formation of glucose, or recycle RuDP (calvin cycle)
Plants use these sugars
from the Dark Reaction
to meet its energy needs
and to build more
complex macromolecules
such as cellulose that it
needs for growth and
When other organisms
eat these plants, they
can also use this energy
stored in the
Cellular Respiration
1. Cellular respiration is the breakdown of
organic molecules.
Energy is released when the bond break( in ATP)
Used to form ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

The chemical formula for cellular respiration is:

C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP
Glucose oxygen carbon water energy
Cellular Respiration
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3GTjQTqUuOw (1:32minglycolysis)

1. Glycolysis= break down of glucose; occurs in the
cytoplasm of the cell; does not require oxygen.
2. All organisms prokaryotes and eukaryotes go
through glycolysis
A.1 glucose2 pyruvic acids (get 2 ATP from process)
Cellular Respiration
Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration (4 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xp0o19gWX7E

B. If oxygen is NOT present (anaerobic) after

glycolysis, fermentation can occur :
i. Lactic Acid Fermentation-2 pyruvate creates lactic acid
in animal cells.
Lactic acid builds up in muscles
Could cause pain and cramping
Cellular Respiration
Ii. Alcohol Fermentation (occurs in bacteria and yeast)
2 pyruvate creates ethanol
see this in brewing beer and making bread
Cellular Respiration
3. Decarboxylation (occurs in cytoplasm) if oxygen is
present (aerobic respiration).
cell uses pyruvic acid to get more energy (in the
presence of oxygen)
2 pyruvate 2 acetyl CoA molecules
enter the Krebs cycle to produce more ATP
Cellular Respiration
4. Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid cycle (occurs in the
mitochondria of the cell)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cDFYXc9Wko (1:55min-
Krebs cycle)
A.Produces 2 more ATP and also 2 other carrier
molecules (NADH and FADH) to catch high energy
B.Carbon dioxide released
Cellular Respiration
5. Electron Transport Chain/Chemiosmosis (in
mitochondria of cell)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1engJR_XWVU (2 min-electron transport chain)

NADH and FADH carriers are needed to make

even more ATP!
Electrons from the 2 carrier molecules produced in
the Krebs Cycle get passed down the chain
Oxygen is released and forms water

This creates the most ATP (32-34)!

Cellular Respiration

***At the end of cellular respiration you have 36-38 ATP!

Cellular Respiration
Summary of Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration
Whats produced:
2 ATP from glycolysis
2 ATP and carbon dioxide from Krebs Cycle
32-34 ATP and water from Electron Transport chain
NADH and FADH (carrier molecules)

Overview of cellular respiration

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration as
Complementary processes