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INTERVENING

VARIABLES
Jhedine D. Sumbillo
?
What are
INTERVENING VARIABLES
? ?
Mediating Variable
It is hypothetical.
variable that follows
anindependent variable
but precedes
thedependent
variablein a causal
sequence
Mediated Model
Control
(Independent Variable)

Causal Factor
(Intervening Variable)
Outcome
(Dependent Variable)
Schools Sanitation

Students Grades
Schools Sanitation
The Cleaner the School,

Students Grades
The Higher the Students Grades
The Cleaner the School,

??
The Higher the Students Grades

?
Schools Sanitation

Students Grades
Schools Sanitation
Chance of being Sick

Students Grades
The Cleaner the School,

Less Absences due to Sickness

The Higher the Students Grades


Schools Sanitation
Chance of being Sick

Students Grades
Independent Variable

Schools Sanitation
Chance of being Sick

Students Grades
Schools Sanitation
Chance of being Sick

Students Grades
Dependent Variable
Schools Sanitation
Chance of being Sick

Students Grades

Intervening Variable
Schools Sanitation
Focus in Class

Students Grades

Intervening Variable
MEDIATED MODELS
Schools Sanitation
Chance of being Sick

Students Grades
Independent
Variable
Intervening Variable

Dependent
Variable
Independent
Variable
Intervening Variable

Dependent
Variable
Independent
Variable
Intervening Variable

Outcome
(Dependent Variable)
Independent
Variable
Intervening Variable

Outcome
(Dependent Variable)
Independent
Variable
Causal Factor
(Intervening Variable)
Outcome
(Dependent Variable)
Independent
Variable
Causal Factor
(Intervening Variable)
Outcome
(Dependent Variable)
Control
(Independent Variable)

Causal Factor
(Intervening Variable)
Outcome
(Dependent Variable)
Tolman's work
on intervening
variables was
an extremely
important
contribution to
cognitive
psychology as
the concept
made it
possible to
consider and
measure
unseen
behavior.
Tolman and Honzik, 1930

Practice Trials Errors


Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Learning
Intervening Variable
10

Theoretically, an internal state of


learning intervened between the
8

independent variable and the


Average Errors

dependent variable.
6
4

It was this state that caused errors


to decrease, not the practice trials.
2
0

1 Trials (1 Trial per Day) 10 17


Example #
2

The effect of nursing intervention on the


extent of recovery of post-operative hospital
patients.
Independent Variable

Nursing Intervention

Dependent Variable
Independent Variable

extent of recovery of post-


operative hospital patients.
Dependent Variable
Nursing Intervention
experience of the nurse, attitude of the
nurse, hospital facilities, environmental
conditions

extent of recovery of post-


operative hospital patients.

Intervening Variable
CONCLUSION
Intervening variables are not
real things. They are
interpretations of observed
facts, not facts themselves but
they create the illusion of being
facts.