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Protection Application Voltage transformer

Handbook
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Voltage transformer
Introduction
Main tasks of Voltage transformer
Measurement of Voltage
Isolation between High Voltage & Low Voltage.
Inputs to Relay/Protection systems
PLCC (Power line Carrier Communication)
Types of voltage transformer
Magnetic voltage transformer (VT)
Capacitive voltage transformer (CVT)

IEC 186 covers voltage transformers


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Voltage transformer
CTs and VTs

Current transformer
I1/I2 = N2/N1
Magnetizing current is negligible

Voltage transformer
E1/E2 = N1/N2
Voltage drop by magnetising current is
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negligible
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Voltage transformer
Vector diagram of VT
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Voltage transformer
Measuring errors
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Voltage transformer
Factors influencing VT output and
magnetizing current
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Voltage transformer
Measuring error as factor of secondary
burden

As per IEC 186 Accuracy class should be fulfilled


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for 25 to 100% Of burden.


Turns ratio correction is done for this
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Voltage transformer
Ratio error %
Class 0.5
Accuracy Curves
80% of Rated Voltage
+0,5
Example: Error curves
+0,2 for class 0.5
0
-0,2

-0,5
25 100%
Class 0.2 Rated burden
120% of Rated Voltage
Phase angle error
+20

+10
0
-10
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-20
25 100%
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Voltage transformer
VT with two secondary windings
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Voltage transformer
Open delta voltage solidly earthed system

For solidly earthed systems open delta winding


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is normally 110V sec


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Voltage transformer
Open delta voltage unearthed/High
resistance earthed system
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For unearthed/ High resistance


earthed systems open delta winding
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is normally 110/3 V sec


Voltage transformer
Preferred values of rated burden

Following are the preferred values of burden


10, 25,50,100,200,500 VA at power factor 0.8

Considering that accuracy is maintained


down to 25% of burden only care should be
taken in selecting appropriate rated burden
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Voltage transformer
Accuracy classes for for metering and
protection & disturbance recording as per
IEC 186
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Voltage transformer
CVT Construction
Pri. Terminal
Metal Bellow

Insulator
Cap. Stack

HF Bushing 20 kV Bushing

Terminal Box Spark Gap


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Epoxy PT EMU
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Voltage transformer
Transient response of CVT as per IEC 186
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Voltage transformer
Ferro resonance

Occurs in circuits containing capacitor and


reactor
In magnetic VTS it is due to inductance of
VT and capacitance of network. Damping is
done by 27-60 Ohms resistance across open
delta winding

In CVT its own capacitance and IVT itself can


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cause this. IEC specifies Ferro resonance


damping devices
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Voltage transformer
FR Ckt
Ferroresonance damping Characteristic
V1
I
m
C1 p 50
Freq
Step Down PT
V2
Vs
HV Choke
C2

FR Ckt
Spark Gap
Resistor
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Sealed Unit
Protects the EMU
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from overvoltages
Voltage transformer
Fusing of secondary circuits

Secondary fuses should be provided in the


first box where three phases are brought
together
Fuses in terminal box should not be used as it
is difficult to supervise them

Fuses selected should be able to give fault


clearance for faults even at the end of the
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cable
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Voltage transformer
Voltage drop in secondary cabling
The voltage drop in secondary cabling should be
checked to confirm the total accuracy of the circuit
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Voltage transformer