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Bapuji S Palki, INCRC/PowerTechnologies, 15-11-2009

Protection Application An Overview

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 1
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 3
Electric Power Systems

Generation Transmission Distribution Consumption

M
G

Generation Transmission Distribution Load

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 4
Different fault types in a power system

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 5
The main task for Relay Protection

U I
Protect people and property
around the power system

Protect equipment, lines etc..


in the power system
C
E

Separate the faulty part from


the rest of the power system

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 8
K
MAIN REQUIREMENTS OF
PROTECTION ARE:

SPEED
SENSITIVITY
SELECTIVITY
DEPENDABILITY
SECURITY

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 9
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 10
Primary and backup protection zones

Remote back-up with time selectivity is most common


at Medium and low voltage functions

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 11
Technology history

Electromechanical 1900 - 1965

- All types of protection


- High impedance busbar
protection
- Very short tripping times
if sufficient torque
- Good reliability in case of
adequate maintenance
Technology history

Solid state 1965 -1980


- No moving parts
- Reduced CT - burden
- Short tripping times
over wide ranges
- More algorithms possible
- Low impedance busbar
protection
- EMC
Technology history
Numerical 1980 -

- All types of protection


- Optimized numerical algorithms
at increased long time stability
- Multifunctional units with less HW
- New availability concept
using benefit of self monitoring
- Communication / interaction with
Station- & Network control
Adaptive Protection
Technology history
SW Flexibility
Protection Library
CPU Capacity
I> I>> I>U< U
I> 51 50 51-27 60

I I I2 I TH
51

87G 87T 46 49
F<>
81
U> U< F<> U/f
0->I 59 27 81 24
CTRL I TH
79 49

Z< X< Ucos P<-


I> CTRL SYNC 21 40 78 32
51 25

U0> CTRL Logics Timer


64S Counter

e.g. Z<3ph. needs 17%


What is Substation Automation ?
A combination of:

Protection
Monitoring
Control
Communication

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 16
What is Substation Automation ?
Substitution for conventional control panels
Substitution for other sub systems
A more efficient way of controlling your substation

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 17

Conventional Control & Protection
Fault SCADA Event
Recording Bay Protection Busbar Protection RTU Recording
ABB 225kV LIGNE ABOBO 1 =D04+R01
ABB 225kV LIGNE ABOBO 1 =D04+R01 ABB 225kV LIGNE ABOBO 1 =D04+R01 ABB 225kV LIGNE ABOBO 1 =D04+R01 ABB 225kV LIGNE ABOBO 1 =D04+R01

125VDC Distributuion Battery A 125VDC Distributuion Battery B


125VDC Distrib utuio n Battery A 125VDC Distrib utuion Battery B 125VDC Distributuion Battery A 125VDC Distributuion Battery B 125VDC Distributuion Battery A 125VDC Distributuion Battery B 125VDC Distributuion Battery A 125VDC Distributuion Battery B
Station Level

ABB
RTU 200IN 1 IN 2 IN 3 IN 4 IN 5 IN 6 IN 7 IN 8 OUT

ON/OFF

BAY CONTROL R ELAY REC316*4

RTU 200IN 1 IN 2 IN 3 IN 4 IN 5 IN 6 IN 7 IN 8 OUT

ON/OFF

LOCAL CONTROL METERING

ABB RTU 200IN 1 IN 2 IN 3 IN 4 IN 5 IN 6 IN 7 IN 8 OUT

ON/OFF

LINE PROTECTION R ELAY REL316*4

ABB

BUSBAR PROTECTION REB500

ABB 225kV LIGNE ABOBO 1 =D04+R01

ABB ABB ABB


Bay Level

For each function a Control


=W1

=W2

dedicated device
-Q1 -Q2
SEL SEL

Panel
and separate Panel
-Q0
SEL TESTE
LAMPE

Extensive station wide cabling Local


Control
OUVRIRFERMER

ABB

ESC EXE

DISTANCE
LOC

Marshalling
Process Level

-Q2 GIS or AIS


Extensive bay cabling
Switchgear
-Q0 -Q9 -Q8

-Q1
System Engineering Tool
The New Way

Communication only
Station HMI Station during engineering
Monitoring
Gateway
System
Station Clock IED Tool

Station bus

Bay Object Control & Multi Object Multi Bay


Control Protection Protection Protection Control

Web Client IEDs

Process bus

Merging Unit Merging Unit

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 19
Monitoring via IEDs for Protection

Automatic printing
Advanced analysis
Summary report GPS
tools

User friendly
visualization
Universal Time
CONCISE / FAST synchronization
Alarm Classes
Distance to Fault
Mo 12. 11. 96 GMT 17:02.43.305

Ayer Rajah & Labrador Feeder One

Sequence of Events
ABB Network Partner AG

# Of trips IED Parameter


C
E

ABB Network Partner AG REL 316*4 ABB Network Partner AG REL 316*4
ABB Network Partner AG REL 316*4

1 9 1 9

2 10 2 10 1 9

3 11 3 11 2 10

4 12 4 12 3 11

5 13 5 13 4 12

6 14 6 14 5 13

7 15 7 15 6 14

8 16 8 16 7 15

8 16

C C
C
E E
E
The goal of the IEC 61850 standard
Interoperability The ability for IEDs from one or several manufacturer
to exchange information and use the information for
the their own functions.

Free Configuration The standard shall support different philosophies and


allow a free allocation of functions e.g. it will work
equally well for centralized (RTU like) or decentralized
(SCS like) systems.

Long Term Stability The standard shall be future proof, i.e. it must be able
to follow the progress in communication technology as
well as evolving system requirements.

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 21
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 22
Fault Clearance System

Protection System

CT Circuit Breaker

Circuit
Protection Breaker
VT Trip
Equipment Mecha-
Coil
nism
TE

DC-System

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 23
Different parts of fault clearance system

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 24
Redundant protection system

Redundant system costs more but can give big savings in the primary
system due to short fault clearance time

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 25
How to enhance dependability of fault
clearance system
The addition of a second main protection
increases the availability and dependability of
fault clearance system

In addition the provision of back-up protection


that operates independently of specified
devices in the main protection system
enhances this further.

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 26
Bapuji S Palki, INCRC/PowerTechnologies, 15-11-2009

Protection of Generators & Generator


Transformers and EHV and UHV
transmission networks
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 27
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 28
Layouts
Typical Parts of a Power Plant
Substation
Busbar in Substation

HV - Breaker
Power plant

Main Transformer Auxiliary Transformer

Generator Breaker

Excitation Transformer

Excitation System
Turbine valve
Turbine - Generator G Field Circuit Breaker

Earthing System
Generator
Protection
Possible Faults
Stator Earth Faults
Rotor Earth Faults
Stator Short Circuits
Stator/Rotor Interturn faults
External faults
Generator
Protection
Abnormal Operating Condition
overcurrent/overload
unbalanced load
overtemperature
over- and undervoltage
over- and underexcitation
over- and underfrequency
over-fluxing
asynchronous running
out of step
generator motoring
failures in the machine control system (i.e.
AVR or governor failure)
failures in the machine cooling system
failures in the primary equipment (i.e.
breaker head flashover)
open phase
Following are the various protections recommended for the generator
and generator transformer protection:

Type of fault ANSI Device Protection Functions


No.
GENERATOR
STATOR
Short Circuits 87G Generator differential
87GT Overall differential
21G Minimum impedance (or alternatively
51 / 27 G Over current / under voltage)

Asymmetry 46G Negative sequence


Stator overload 51G Overload
Earth fault stator 64G1 95% stator earth fault
64G2 100% stator earth fault

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 32
Loss of excitation 40G Loss of excitation
Out of step 98G Pole slip
Monitoring 32G / 37G Low forward power / reverse power
(double protection for large generators)
Blade fatigue 81G Minimum frequency
Inter turn fault 95G Over voltage or over current
Mag. Circuits 99G Overfluxing volt / Hz
Higher voltage 59G Over voltage
Accidental 27 / 50 G Dead machine
energisation
Monitoring 60 G PT fuse failure

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 33
GENERATOR
ROTOR
Rotor ground 64F Rotor earth fault
GENERATOR
TRANSFORMER
Short Circuits 87GT Overall differential
51GT Overcurrent
87T Transformer differential
Ground fault 51NGT Earth fault over-current
87NT Restricted earth fault
Overhang 87HV HV winding cum overhang differential
UNIT AUXILIARY
TRANSFORMER
Short circuit 87 UAT Transformer differential
51 UAT Over-current
Ground fault 51 UAT Restricted over-current
64 UAT Restricted earth fault

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 34
50/51

Unit aux.
transformer

64F
Field winding
ground-fault
RAGRA
(RXNB4)

1) Instruments

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 35
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 36
Power transformers in a power system

400 kV AC Transmission

130 kV Subtransmission

Generation

MV Distribution

LV
M

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 37
315MVA Transformer

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 38
Types of Internal Faults

Earth faults
Short-circuits
Inter turn Faults
Core Faults
Tank Faults
Reduced cooling

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 39
Abnormal Conditions

Overload

Over voltage

Reduced system voltage

Over excitation

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 40
Protective Relays Used ( Transformers > 5 MVA)
Gas detector relay ( Buchholz)
Over load protection
Thermal relays
Temperature monitoring relays
Over current protection
Ground fault protection
Differential protection
Interturn faults
Pressure relay for tap changer
Oil level monitor

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 41
Protective Relays Used ( Transformers < 5
MVA)
Gas detector relay
Overload protection
Overcurrent protection
Ground fault protection

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 42
Monitors
Monitors are very important devices which detect
faults and abnormal service conditions which may
develop into fault.

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 43
Transformer Monitors

Mechanical fault detectors


Sudden gas pressure protection
Buchholz protection
Oil level monitoring
Temperature Monitoring
The oil thermometer
The winding thermometer

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 44
Recommendations for provision of protective and monitoring
equipment for transformers of 400kV and 220kV class are as follows:

(a) Transformer differential protection

(b) Overfluxing protection

(c) Restricted earth-fault protection

(d) Back-up directional O / C + E / F protection on HV side

(e) Back-up directional O / C + E / F protection on LV side

(f) Protection and monitors built in to Transformer (Buchholz relay,


Winding and Oil Temperature Indicators, Oil Level Indicator and
Pressure Relief Device)

(g) Protection for Tertiary winding


2.0
2.0 SPECIAL
SPECIALCOMMENTS
COMMENTS
2.1
2.1

Protection and monitors shall be divided in two groups viz. Gr A and


Gr B at 400kV.

Given below is the way of grouping these protections:

Group A Group B

Transformer biased R.E.F Protection


differential relay Buchholz Protection

Back up Protection(HV) Back up Protection(MV)

Overfluxing protection(HV) Overfluxing protection(MV)


Group A Group B

Oil temperature high tripping Overload protection (Alarm only)


winding, temperature high tripping

Pressure relief tripping OLTC Buchholz tripping

Delta winding protection Oil level high/low tripping

Group A and B protections shall be connected to separate DC source/


separately fused supplies.

DC sources shall be supervised

Both Gr A and Gr B protections shall give out tripping impulses to HV,


MV AND LV (if applicable), circuit breakers.
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 48
The reactor absorbs the capacitive power
generated in long lines

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 49
Shunt Reactor

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 50
ABC ABC

L R

Lp Lp Lp

Ln

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 51
General

Shunt reactors are used in EHV systems to limit the over


voltages due to capacitive VAR generation in Long
Transmission Lines


The shunt reactors are normally connected
Through isolators to a line
Through circuit breakers to a busbar
Through circuit breakers to the tertiary of a Interconnecting
transformer

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 52
Different locations of reactor

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 53
Internal Faults
Faults occur in shunt reactors due to insulation breakdown, ageing of
insulation, overheating due to over excitation, oil contamination and
leakage

Dry air-core reactors


Phase-to-phase faults , resulting in high magnitude phase current
Phase-to-earth faults ,, resulting in a low-magnitude earth-fault
current, dependent upon the size of the system earthing.
Turn-to-turn faults within the reactor bank, resulting in a very small
change in phase current
Oil-immersed reactors
High current phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth faults.
Turn-to-turn faults within the reactor winding.
Miscellaneous failures such as loss of cooling or low oil

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 54
Abnormal Conditions

Inrush currents

Inrush currents flow in connection with energisation


Inrush currents usually lower than 200% of rated
current

Transient overvoltages
Temporary overvoltages

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 55
Shunt Reactor Protections

Differential protection
Distance protection
Phase over current protection
Restricted earth fault protection
Mechanical fault detectors
Oil temperature and winding temperature
protection

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 56
Reactor Monitors

Mechanical fault detectors


Sudden gas pressure protection
Buchholz protection
Oil level monitoring
Temperature Monitoring
The oil thermometer
The winding thermometer

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 57
Recommendations for provision of protection and monitoring equipment
for Reactors are as follows:

(a) Reactor differential Protection

(b) Reactor REF Protection

(c) Reactor backup protection(Impedance type or definite time O/C and E/F)

(d) Protections and monitors built into reactor (buchholz, winding


temperature, oil temperature, pressure relief, oil level, Fire protection)
2.0
2.0 Special
SpecialComments
Comments
2.1
2.1

No duplication of reactor protections needs to be done but the


protections and monitors shall be divided in two groups viz Gr A
and Gr B.

Group A Group B

Reactor differential relay Buchholz trip

Reactor backup relay Reactor R.E.F relay

Oil temperature trip Winding temperature trip

Pressure relief trip Oil level high / low trip, Fire protection
trip
DC sources shall be supervised

Both Gr A and Gr B protections shall give out tripping impulses to HV,


MV AND LV (if applicable), circuit breakers.
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 61
Transmission Line

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 62
Electrical faults in the power system

Transmission lines 85%


Busbar 12%
Transformer/ Generator 3%

100%

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 63
Fault types
Transient faults
are common on transmission lines, approximately 80-85%
lightnings are the most common reason
can also be caused by birds, falling trees, swinging lines
etc.
will disappear after a short dead interval
Persistent faults
can be caused by a broken conductor fallen down
can be a tree falling on a line
must be located and repaired before normal service

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 64
Measuring principles

Overcurrent protection
Differential protection
Phase comparison
Distance protection
Directional- wave protection

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 65
Overcurrent protection
Are normally used in radial networks with system voltage
below 70 kV where relatively long operating time is
acceptable.
On transmission lines directional or nondirectional over
current relays are used as back-up protections.

I>

I> I> I>


block

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 66
Digital differential communication
L1
L2
L3

DL1
DL1
Digital communication with
DL2
optical fibres or by DL2

multiplexed channels
DL3 DL3

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 67
The principle of distance protection

ZK=Uk/Ik

Uk Uk=0
metallic fault

Zk B
A
Ik
Z<
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 68
Distance protection on short lines
jX
Quadrilateral characteristic improves
sensitivity for higher RF/XF ratio
It still has some limitations:
the value of set RF/XF ratio is
limited to 5

RF

XF R

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 69
jX Distance protection on long lines
Load impedance limits the reach in
resistive direction
High value of RF/XF ratio is generally not
necessary
Circular (mho) characteristic
Has no strictly defined reach in
resistive direction
Needs limitations in resistive
direction (blinder)

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 70
PLCC equipment

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 71
1.1
1.1 400
400kV
kVLines
Lines

There should be two independent high speed main protection schemes


called Main-I and Main-II with at least one of them being carrier aided
non-switched three zone distance protection.

The other protection may be a phase segregated current differential


(this may require digital communication) phase comparison, directional
comparison type or a carrier aided non-switched distance protection.

If Main-I and Main-II are both distance protection schemes, then they
should be preferably of different types. They need not necessarily of
different make. Both should be suitable for single and three phase tripping
In addition to above, following shall also be provided

i) Two stage over-voltage protection. However in such cases where


system has grown sufficiently or in case of short lines, utilities on their
discretion may decide not to provide this protection.

ii) Auto reclose relay suitable for 1 ph / 3 ph (with deadline charging and
synchro check facility) reclosure.

iii) Sensitive IDMT directional E/F relay


1.2
1.2 220
220kV
kVLines
Lines

There should be at least one carrier aided non-switched three zone


distance protection scheme.

In addition to this another non-switched / switched distance scheme


or directional over current and earth fault relays should be provided
as back up.

Main protection should be suitable for single and three phase tripping.

Auto-reclose relay suitable for 1 ph / 3 ph reclosure shall be provided.

In case of both line protections being Distance Protections, IDMT type


E / F relay shall also be provided additionally.
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 75
765 kV 1056 MVAR Series capacitor
Reasons for using series capacitors

To avoid voltage collapse (IN,SE,ZA,US)


To increase transient stability(CO,IN,GS,SE,ZA,US )
To optimize load distribution (CO,IN,NO,SE)
To improve quality of supply (BR,ZA,US)
To increase power transfer capability (GS,ZA,US)
Typical connection diagram of Fixed Series
Capacitor
1)Capacitor
2)MOV
3)Spark Gap
4)Bypass switch
5)Reactor
6)Resistor
8)Platform
9)Disconnector
10)Bypass
disconnector
11)Earth switch
Increased power transfer capability by raising
the first swing stability limit
Thyristor controlled series capacitor
Voltage inversion on Series Compensated line

Voltage UM at relay point will lag fault current IF if XC> XL1.


Voltage inversion causes false decision in conventional directional
relays.
Current inversion on Series Compensated line

Fault current will lead source voltage by 90 degrees if


XC> XS +XL1.
Current inversion causes a false directional decision of
distance relays (voltage memories do not help in this case)
Impact of series compensation on protective
relays of adjacent lines

Due to intermediate in feeds protection far away


from the faulty line can mal operate by its
instantaneous zone
An important Conclusion

System studies , Use of on line


Simulator (e.g.; RTDS), Tests using
EMTP files are very important when
applying protections for series
compensated lines.
Such studies should be specific to
each line.
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 86
Auto
Auto reclosing
reclosing Cycle
Cycle

OH-lines
High fault-rate
(80-90%)

Fast
simultaneous
Fault clearing

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 87
AUTORECLOSING
AUTORECLOSINGCYCLE
CYCLE

OH-lines
Intermittent faults
(80-90%)

Successful
AR-rate :
High (80-90%)

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 88
Auto reclosing principles

95% of faults are transient type


3 Ph autoreclosing synchrocheck is used
Helps verify phase angles are not out of phase
e.g: due to heavy power swing
1 Ph autoreclosing needs identification of
faulty phase
Phase identification is difficult for high resistance
faults

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 89
Single-pole Reclosing

Single-Pole Reclosing

AB C ABC

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 90
Artificial extinction of secondary arc by Fixed
Four-reactor Scheme
ABC ABC

L R

Lp Lp Lp

Ln

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 91
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 92
Need for Busbar protection
In its absence fault clearance takes place in Zone-II of
distance relay by remote end tripping
This means slow and unselective tripping and wide spread
black out

Effect of delayed clearance


Greater damage at fault point
Indirect shock to connected equipments like shafts
of Generator and windings of transformer.

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 93
Types of BB Protections
High impedance
Medium impedance
Low impedance
Blockable O/C relay ( For radial systems in
distribution systems)

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 94
High impedance bus differential relay
Basic features

SETTING VR > IF ( RCT + 2 RL)

RL VK > 2 VR
FOR VR TO BE ZERO FOR
VR RCT EXTERNAL FAULT
A B
n A = nB 1 + R A / ZA
1 + RB / ZB

n = TURNS RATIO
R = RCT + 2 RL
Z = MAGNETIZING IMPEDANCE

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 95
RADSS medium
impedance relay

T MD IR1
n MD

Ud3

dR

D2 D1

US

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 96
REB500 - Numerical Busbar ABB Network Partner AG REB 500

and Breaker Failure Protection


C
E

Distributed installation
Central Unit

ABB Network Partner AG REB 500 ABB Network Partner AG REB 500 ABB Network Partner AG REB 500 ABB Network Partner AG REB 500

C C C C
E E E E

Bay Unit Bay Unit Bay Unit Bay Unit

E E

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 97
Advantages of medium/ Low impedance relays

Free from any need for Identical CT ratios or matched CTs

Other relays can be included in the same CT core

Increasing fault levels have no impact

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 98
1.0
1.0 GENERAL
GENERAL
Bus bar protection is provided for high speed sensitive clearance
of bus bar faults by tripping all the circuit breakers connected to
faulty bus

Recommendations for providing bus bar protection at different


voltage levels are as follows:

(i) Bus bar protection must be provided in all new 400kV and 220kV
substations as well as generating station switchyards.

(ii) For existing substations, provision of bus bar protection is


considered must at 400kV level and at 220kV level.

In case of radially fed 220kV substations, having more than one bus
it is desirable to have bus bar protection but is not a must.
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 100
Interrupters
Interrupter design

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 101
Breaker back-up
5 1 2 6

Z<

7 8

3 4
For uncleared fault shown CBs to be tripped are 1, 3, 4 & 6

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 102
Classical CBFP

Breaker Failure Protection

I>
I> I>
I>

t
+
if trip trip
from
relay

ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 103
Recommendations for providing LBB protection at different voltage
levels are as follows:

(i) In all new 400kV and 220kV substations as well as generating stations
switchyards, it must be provided for each circuit breaker

(ii) For existing switchyards, it is considered a must at 400kV level and


also at 220kV switchyards having multiple feed

In case of radially fed 220kV substations, provision of LBB protection is


desirable but not essential
Wide Area Monitoring System
Global measurements provided by a WAMS
improve voltage stability assessment GPS synchronised current and
Im
voltage phasor measurement
U1 I1
I3
Time resolution: <10-6 s
U3 U2
Re GPS
Wide Area I2 Satellite
Monitoring
Center PMU

Transmission Network

PMU
PMU
PMU PMU
Im Im Im Im
U1 I1 U1 I1 U1 I1 U1 I1
I3 I3 I3 I3
Re Re Re Re
U3 U2 U3 U2 U3 U3 U2
U2
I2 I2 I2 I2
Traditional versus Smart Grids a transition
Traditional Grid Smart Grids

Centralized and distributed power generation (renewable)


Multi-directional power flow
Operation based on real time data

Centralized power generation


Uni-directional power flow
Operation based on historical experience
ABB Group
September 16, 2017 | Slide 107