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ATP AND THE

COUPLED
GENERAL BIOLOGY 1
REACTION
WHAT IS AN ATP?

ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE

-THE ENERGY CURRECY OF LIFE


-ACT AS IF IT IS A BATTERY
-IT CONTROLS THE AMOUNT OF TIMING OF
ENERGY TO BE USED AND RELEASED WITHIN THE
CELLS.
WHO DISCOVERED ATP
KARL LOHMANN (1898-1978)
A German Biologist who given credit for the discovery
of ATP from extracts of muscles and liver.
Lohmanns analysis on the ATP structure was in close
competition with other scientists but he succeeded
through acid hydrolysis- A chemical reaction in which
water reacts with a compound to produce other
compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the
addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide
anion from the water.
INTRODUCTION OF ATP
ATP is now scientifically accepted to composed of
a sugar molecule, a base group, and a
phosphate group.
HIGH ENERGY BOND

ADENINE P P P
FUNCTIONS OF ATP
1. CHEMICAL WORK
-Provides energy required for producing complex
substances, such as biomolecules.
2. MECHANICAL WORK
-Provides the energy for cells and tissues to perform
their functions such as the circulation of blood, the
contraction of muscles, and the pumping of the heart.
3. TRANSPORT WORK
- Provides the energy for substances to move, such as
the entry and exit of compounds across cell membranes,
or substances binding the protein enzymes.
COUPLED REACTION
ATP IS HIGHLY UNSTABLE MOLECULE, It
spontaneously dissociates into ADP and inorganic
phosphate even when there is no activity requiring
energy. Thus, this energy is produced as free
energy and is lost as heat. However, because cells
are efficient, they harness this free energy within
the bonds through a strategy called energy
coupling.
HOW IS COUPLED REACTION HAPPEN?
FREE ENERGY
USE FROM EXERGONIC REACTION

ENDERGONIC REACTION
BY COUPLING OR JOINING TWO REACTIONS, WEHRE THEY BECOME
INITIATE COMPLEMENTARY

HYDROLYSIS
It is an exergonic reaction because it releases energy
PHOSPHORYLATION
INVOLVE Endergonic reaction
The process of adding a phosphate group to a certain biomolecules such as
glucose.
COUPLED REACTION
HYDROLYSIS-EXERGONIC REACTION-RELEASE OF
ENERGY-(ATP)-ENERGY DEFICIENT (ADP)

ATP ENZYME
ATPASE
ADP
COUPLED REACTION
ANABOLIC CATABOLIC
REACTIONS

REQUIRED ENERGY RELEASED ENERGY


ENDERGONIC EXERGONIC
ANABOLIC HORMONES CATABOLIC HORMONES
GUARD

GROWTH HORMONES ADRENALINE,


TESTOSTERONE CORTISOL
MAINTENANCE

AND ESTROGEN GLUCAGON


THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
OFFICER

BALANCE THE ANABOLISM AND CATABOLISM


MAINTAINS REGULAR PATTERN PROCESS IN THE BODY WITHIN 24 HRS. CYCLE

DISRUPTION
GLUCOSE METABOLISM FLUCTUATES TO CATCH UP TO PERSONS NEED FOR ENERGY