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4.

Teori Motivasi : Content Theories

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Tujuan Pengajaran
Pengertian dan Model Motivasi
Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow
Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg
Teori kebutuhan McClelland
Alderfers ERG theory

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Pengertian dan Model Motivasi
Pengertian

The willing to exert high levels of effort toward organization


goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy some individual need

Model Motivasi
Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow
Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg
Teori kebutuhan McClelland
Alderfers ERG theory

Source : Stephen P. Robbins 3


The Motivational Process : An Initial Model

I
Need deficiencies
I want to perform well to
VI
earn the promotion.
Need deficiencies II
reassessed by the Search for ways satisfy
employee needs
I still want the I need to show the manager
promotion. Ive got to try that I want the promotion
another approach. work on tough assignments,
The Employee work extra hours, help co-
worker.
V
Rewards of
punishments
Received recognition III
award; granted the Goal directed behavior
opportunity to attend The Promotion.
IV
training program.
Performance (evaluation
of goal accomplished)
Highest ratings on quantity,
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quality and cost containment.
Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow

That peoples needs depend on what they already


have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs isnt a
motivator. Human needs, organized in a hierarchy of
importance, are physiological, safety, belongingness,
esteem, and self actualization

Source : Gibson 5
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

Self
actualization

Esteem

Social / Belongingness

Safety

Physiological

Source : Stephen P. Robbins 6


TEORI DUA FAKTOR FREDERICK HERZBERG

View that job satisfaction results from the presence of


intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from
not having extrinsic factors

Source : Gibson 7
Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-Dissatifaction

I. Traditional
High job High job
dissatisfaction satisfaction

II. Herzbergs two-factor view


Low job High job
satisfaction satisfaction
(motivator)

Low job High job


dissatisfaction satisfaction
(hygiene)

Source : Gibson 8
Teori Kebutuhan McClelland

Learned Needs Theory


Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be
motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A
persons needs are learned from the culture of a society

Thematis Apperception Test (TAT)


Projective test that uses a persons analysis of picture to
evaluate such individual differences as need for achivement,
need for power, and need for affiliation

Source : Gibson 9
The theory focus on three needs

1. Need for achievement

The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards,


to strive to succeed

2. Need for power

The need to make others behave in a way that they wouldnt


have behaved otherwise

3. Need for affiliation

The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

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Alderfers ERG theory

Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorized


needs as existence, related-ness and growth

Existence; needs satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditions

Related-ness; needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship

Growth; needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions

Source : Gibson 11
ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, Importance
and Satisfaction of Needs

Frustration Importance Satisfaction


of growth needs of growth needs of growth needs

Frustration Importance Satisfaction


of relatedness needs of relatedness needs of relatedness needs

Frustration Importance Satisfaction


of existence needs of existence needs of existence needs

Source : Gibson 12
A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation

Maslow Herzberg Alderfer Mc Clelland


(need hierarchy) (two factor theory)
The work itself
Need for
Self-actualization - Responsibility Growth
achievement
Higher - Advancement
order Esteem Motivators - Growth
needs
Achievement
Belongingness,
Recognition
social and love
Need for
Quality of Relatedness
power
Physiological interpersonal relations
among peers, with

Basic Hygiens supervisor, with


needs conditions subordinates
Need for
Job security Existence affiliation
Working conditions
Salary

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