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Rolling

And
Extrusion
ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems
Rolling Process

Points:
Significant shape change
Capital intensive
Large volume
Usually hot worked (isotropic)*
Oxide scale
Tolerances difficult to hold

* Can be followed by cold rolling to improve


tolerances and directional properties

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Rolling Products

Billet
Blooms (> 6 x 6)
Slab
Ingots Billets (> 1.5 x 1.5)

Slab (> 10 x 1.5)

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


vr
Rolling Model q R
p
vo vf
to tf
L
Assumptions:
vr
Infinite sheet R = roller radius
p = roll pressure
Uniform, perfectly rigid rollers L = contact length
Constant material volume: q = contact angle
to wo Lo = tf wf Lf vr = roll speed
rate (to wo vo = tf wf vf ) to = initial plate thickness
where tf = final plate thickness
Lo = initial plate length vo = plate entry speed
Lf = final plate length Vf = plate exit speed

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Rolling Model

Define draft = d = to - tf
Draft limit = dmax = m2R m = 0.1 cold Point of greatest
contact pressure =
m = 0.2 warm no slip point
m = 0.4 1.0 hot

Define forward slip = s = (vf vr)/vr

Does it make sense that vr < vf?

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Rolling Model stress, strain, force, power

Define true strain = e = ln(to/tf) (Note: use to/tf to keep > 0)

Apply average flow stress = Yf = K en /(1 + n)


Approximate roll force = F = Yf w L

where L = R(to tf)


R R (totf)/2
q

Torque estimated by T = 0.5 F L L

Power = P = Tw = 2p w F L (for two rollers)

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Other rolling configurations

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Example 21.1 in text
Roll a 12 inch wide strip, that is 1 inch thick, to 0.875 inch thickness in
one pass with roll speed of 50 rpm and radius = 10 inches. Material has
K = 40,000 psi, n = 0.15 and m = 0.12. Determine if feasible and calculate
F, T, and power if so.
Solution:
Feasible since dmax = (0.12)2 (10) = 0.144 in. > d = 1.0 0.875 = 0.125 in.
Contact length = L = 1.118 in.
e = ln(1.0/0.875) = 0.134
Yf = (40,000)(0.134)0.15/1.15 = 25,729 psi
Rolling force = (25,729)(12)(1.118) = 345,184 lb
Torque = (0.5)(345,184)(1.118) = 192,958 in.-lb
Power = P = (2p)(50)(345,184)(1.118) = 121,238,997 in.-lb/min (306 hp)
ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems
Extrusion
Limitation requires uniform cross-section vs length
Advantages:
Variety of shapes
Control mechanical properties in cold and warm extrusion
Little wasted material
Good tolerances
Types : Direct extrusion and indirect extrusion

Less
friction!

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Extrusion Model

Assumptions: L
Circular cross-section
Uniform stress distribution p Do
Df

p = ram pressure
L = remaining billet length
Do = chamber diameter
Df = extrudate diameter

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Extrusion Model stress and strain
Define extrusion ratio = rx = Ao/Af Ao = billet (chamber) area
Af = extrudate area

Frictionless model:
ideal true strain = e = ln rx
ideal ram pressure = p = Yf ln rx
With friction:
Johnson eqn ex = a + b ln rx a = 0.8
1.2 b 1.5

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Extrusion Model stress and strain
Indirect extrusion ram pressure = p = Yf ex (ex is from Johnson eqn)
and where Yf is found using the the ideal true strain e= ln rx

In direct extrusion, difficult to predict the chamber/billet interactive


friction, so use the shear yield strength ( about Yf /2 ) to estimate the
chamber wall shear force as
pf pDo2/4 = Yf p Do L/2
giving
pf = 2 Yf L /Do
and where pf = additional pressure to overcome wall friction force
Total ram pressure becomes
p = Yf (ex + 2L /Do )
ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems
Extrusion Model non-circular sections
Apply a shape factor Kx (experimental results):
Kx = 0.98 + 0.02 (Cx / Cc)2.25
where
Cx = perimeter of extruded shape
Cc = perimeter of circle having same area of extruded shape
Applies for
1.2 (Cx / Cc) 1.5
For complex extrudate:
Indirect p = Kx Yf ex
Direct p = Kx Yf (ex + 2L /Do )

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Extrusion Model forces and power

Ram force = F = pAo

Power = P = Fv

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems


Extrusion example
A billet 3 long and 1 diameter is to be extruded as a round extrudate
in a direct extrusion operation with extrusion ratio of rx = 4. Given die
angle of 90, strength coefficient of 60,000 psi, and strain hardening
exponent of 0.18, use the Johnson formula with a = 0.8 and b = 1.5 to
estimate extrusion strain, and then determine the pressure applied to
the end of the billet as the ram moves forward.

Solution:

e = ln rx = ln 4 = 1.3863
ex = 0.8 + 1.5(1.3863) = 2.87945
Yf = 60,000(1.386)0.18/1.18 = 53,927 psi
ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems
Extrusion example
A billet 3 long and 1 diameter is to be extruded as a round extrudate
in a direct extrusion operation with extrusion ratio of rx = 4. Given die
angle of 90, strength coefficient of 60,000 psi, and strain hardening
exponent of 0.18, use the Johnson formula with a = 0.8 and b = 1.5 to
estimate extrusion strain, and then determine the pressure applied to
the end of the billet as the ram moves forward.

Solution continued:

p = Yf (ex + 2L/D) = 53,927 [2.87945 + (2)(3)/1]

p = 478,842 psi
ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems
Rolling and Extrusion

What have we learned?

ME 482 - Manufacturing Systems