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MODERNISM I

INTRODUCING MODERNISM
1635-1815 Age of Enlightenment
1789-1799 French Revolution
1853 Georges-Eugne Haussmann (1809-1891) undertakes rebuilding
Paris as a Modern capital under Louis Napoleon III
1857 British Impose Power & Superiority in India post the First War of
Independence
1870s Foundations of Modern Movement
1880 Art Nouveau Development in Cities Brussles, Turin, Barcelona & Milan
1914 WWI Begins (End of Imperialism)
1917 De Stijl
1920 WWI Ends
1920s ART DECO
Chronological context in Architecture
- Modernism
MAJORto Postmodernism
MOVES -

1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s

First generation Second generation Third generation


modernists modernists modernists

The pioneers of modernism. These were the architects of high These were the architects of
They each treated form, space, modernism- the universal Postmodernism.
structure, materials and ornament in International Style- as well as the They reacted against the orthodoxy of
novel ways. fashionable Art Deco period. high modernism.

Peter Behrens - Berlin Walter Gropius Frank Gehry

Auguste Perret - Paris Le Corbusier Philip Johnson

C. R. Mackintosh - Glasgow Mies van der Rohe Charles Moore

Otto Wagner - Vienna Gerrit Reitveld I. M. Pei

Adolf Loos - Vienna William Van Allen Michael Greaves

Louis Sullivan - Chicago Napier Art Deco architects Louis Kahn

Frank Lloyd Wright - Chicago and mid-western states of USA Robert Venturi
INTRODUCING THE FIRST MODERNS (1910-20)
MOVEMENTS German Werkabund (1907, a German Artwork union), Jugendstil
(Art Nouveau in Germany), Neoclassicism, Expressionism,
Amsterdam School, Cubism, Futurism

Peter Behrens (1868-1940) Founder of Munich Secession (1892), Munich


AEG Turbine Factory (1909), Berlin
Hoechst Dyeworks company headquarters (1920-24), Frankfurt

Adolf Loos (1870-1933) Planning private residences influenced Modern architects


Villa Karma, Clarens, near Montreux, Switzerland (190406)
Goldman and Salatsch Building, Vienna (1910)
House for the Dada writer Tristan Tzara, Paris (1926)

August Perret (1874-1954) 25 rue Franklin (1902), Paris


Thtre des Champs-Elyses (1906-13), Paris
The Church of Notre-Dame-du-Raincy (1924), near Paris

Walter Gropius (1883-1969) Factory buildings for Werkbund Exposition (1914), Cologne
Fagus Works (1911) at Alfeld-an-der-Leine with Adolph Meyer
Bahaus School of Design (1925-26), Dessau
GERMAN WERKABUND EXHIBITION COLOGNE
Image Source: http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/220923 [ONLINE]

Werkabund Exhibition (1914), Cologne; Factory and Office Building for Werkbund
Exhibition
GERMAN WERKABUND EXHIBITION COLOGNE
Image Source: www.kunstausstellungen.de [ONLINE]

Werkabund Exhibition (1914), Cologne; The Glass Pavilion, Bruno Taut; EXPRESSIONISM
Glass brings us the new age, the culture of brick only gives us only pain-Paul Scheerbart.
Image Source: https://designhistoryresearch.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/dscf7586.jpg?w=480&h=374 [ONLINE]

FIRST MODERNS PETER BEHRENS

Butterflies on Water Lilies, Behrens shows affinity for Japanese Art


Image Source: https://designhistoryresearch.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/cri_157984.jpg?w=480&h=360 [ONLINE]

Plate (1901) & the AEG Sparbogenlampe (1907-08)


FIRST MODERNS PETER BEHRENS

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FIRST MODERNS PETER BEHRENS
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AEG Turbine Factory (1908-09), Berlin; NEOCLASSICAL


FIRST MODERNS PETER BEHRENS
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AEG Turbine Factory (1908-09), Berlin


FIRST MODERNS PETER BEHRENS
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German Embassy (1911), St. Petersburg; NEOCLASSICAL


FIRST MODERNS NEOCLASSICAL
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memorialg [ONLINE]

FIRST MODERNS NEOCLASSICAL


FIRST MODERNS PETER BEHRENS
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AEG Turbine Factory (1908-09), Berlin; EXPRESSIONISM


ADOLF LOOS (1870-1933)

Loos studied at the Royal and Imperial State


Technical College in Reichenberg (now
Liberec)

Further education at College of Technology


in Dresden, he moved to America (189397)
where he worked as a mason, a floor-layer,
and a dish-washer. Also lived in Paris (1924
28)

Worked with architect Carl Mayreder before


he establishing his own practice in 1897

After teaching throughout Europe, he


returned to practice in Vienna in 1928
FIRST MODERNS ADOLF LOOS
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Image Source: www.pinterest.com [ONLINE]


Villa Karma, Clarens, near Montreux, Switzerland (190406); Notable for its
geometric simplicity
FIRST MODERNS ADOLF LOOS

Steiner House, Vienna (1910), referred to by some architectural historians as the


FIRST MODERNS ADOLF LOOS
Image Source: austincubed.blogspot.com [ONLINE]

Goldman and Salatsch Building, Vienna (1910); classical exterior detail is offset by
large areas of blank, polished marble
FIRST MODERNS ADOLF LOOS

Through his writings, Loos


wanted to establish an intelligent
design methodology based on
pragmatic reasoning, abolishing
any ornament that was not
justified by rational function.

In an essay entitled Ornament


and Crime, he states he
explored the notion that
ornament results in the undue
obsolescence of everyday
objects, decrying the use of
laborers .. ultimately
concluding that ornament was a
sign of degeneracy Villa Muller (1930), Prague Adolf Loos
FIRST MODERNS ADOLF LOOS
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Maison Tristan Tzara, Paris (1926)


The rigidly functionalist house, built in Montmartre for poet-writer Tzara and his
painter wife; designed following Tzara's specific requirements and decorated with
samples of African art.
Image Source: der-neue-merker.eu [ONLINE] FIRST MODERNS MAX BERG

Jahrhunderthalle -Centennial Hall (1910-13), Breslau in Poland


Image Source: www.sulinet.hu [ONLINE] FIRST MODERNS MAX BERG

Jahrhunderthalle -Centennial Hall (1910-13), Breslau in Poland


FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET
Image Source: fparisisinvisible.blogspot.com [ONLINE]

25 Rue Franklin(1902), Paris


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25 Rue Franklin(1902), Paris


FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET

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FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET
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The Atelier Esders (1919), Paris


FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET
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The Church of Notre-Dame-du-Raincy (1924), Le Raincy


FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET
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The Church of Notre-Dame-du-Raincy (1924), Le Raincy


FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET
Image Source: paris-bise-art.blogspot.com [ONLINE]

Interior view of the Salle Cortot concert hall, or cole Normale de Musique in
Paris (1929); Has impeccable acoustics
FIRST MODERNS AUGUSTE PERRET
Image Source: pinterest.com [ONLINE]

Economic and Social Council in Paris, originally the Museum of Public Works,
built for the 1937 Paris International Exposition by Auguste Perret (1937)
WALTER GROPIUS

He studied architecture between 1903


and 1907 in Munich and Berlin.

From 1908 to 1910, he worked for


Peter Behrens, in whose practice the
seminal AEG Tubine Hall of concrete,
steel, and glass was planned and built.

From 1910, Gropius had his own


architecture practice in Berlin.
Image Source: www.curbed.com/2014/5/19/10098442/for-his-birthday-10-works-by-bauhaus-
founder-walter-gropius [ONLINE]

FIRST MODERNS WALTER GROPIUS

Fagus Factory (1911-13), Alfeld an der Leine; with Adolf Meyer (BEFORE BAUHAUS)
GROPIUS WORKS BEFORE BAUHAUS

Sommerfeld House, Berlin (1921) designed for Adolf Sommerfeld


GROPIUS HOUSE MASSACHUSETTES (1937)
GROPIUS HOUSE STRIKING CHARACTERISTICS

The structure of the house consists of the traditional light wood


frame of New England, sheathed with white painted clapboard siding:
only in this case the siding runs vertically instead of horizontally.

Set amid fields, forests, and farmhouses, the Gropius House mixes up
the traditional materials of New England architecture (wood, brick,
and fieldstone) with industrial materials such as glass block, acoustic
plaster, welded steel, and chrome banisters.

The minimalist color scheme is maintained throughout the house -


black, white, pale grays and earth colors, with sparsely used
contrasting splashes of red.
GROPIUS HOUSE
GROPIUS HOUSE

The house is designed and detailed to work almost theatrically as a whole. The
lighting in the dining room, for example, mixes a single art-gallery spotlight
recessed in the ceiling, whose beam exactly covers the circular table but not
the diners; a second spotlight in the study, backlighting the glass-block wall
between the two rooms and silhouetting the sprawling plant that climbs the
glass wall; and exterior floodlights illuminating the trees in the garden.
BAUHAUS SCHOOL (1919-1933)

Bauhaus: Ideology and materiality


Introduced the Radical concept: reimagine the material
world to reflect the unity of all the arts
BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN

The Bauhauss incantatory 'Manifesto'


formed part of the prospectus in which
Walter Gropius presented the programme

Image Source: www.theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus.htm [ONLINE]


of the newly founded college of design in
1919, using Lyonel Feiningers 'Cathedral'
woodcut as the title image. The
proclamation focuses on the need for the
fine arts to be unified under the primacy
of architecture* and for a return to
craftsmanship in order to reveal the craft
quality as the ultimate source of creative
design.

* utopian craft guild combining


architecture, sculpture, and painting into a
single creative expression

Oskar Schlemmer's depiction (1932) of the main stairway in the Bauhaus Dessau building
came to epitomize the open and creative approach of the school.
BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN

anxieties about the soullessness of


manufacturing and its products, and in
fears about art's loss of purpose in

Image Source: www.theartstory.org/movement-bauhaus.htm [ONLINE]


society
stress on intellectual and theoretical
pursuits, and linked these to an
emphasis on practical skills, crafts and
techniques that was more reminiscent
of the medieval guild system
stress on experiment and problem
solving at the Bauhaus has proved
enormously influential for the
approaches to education in the arts
(elevating fine arts to visual arts, more
like research science)
The Bauhaus teaching principles and course
structure - illustration by Walter Gropius
BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN

THE MASTERS AT BAUHAUS

Bauhaus was considered to be the first design school in the modernist style. It
influenced the art and architectural trends in the whole world.

The school existed in three German cities (Weimar, Dessau and Berlin), under three
different architect-directors: Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer and Ludwig Mies van
der Rohe until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under
pressure from the Nazi regime.
FIRST MODERNS WALTER GROPIUS
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Bauhaus School (192526) in Dessau


BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN

The glass curtain wall suspended in


front of the load-bearing framework
defines the exterior of the workshop
wing and openly shows the
constructive elements.

Gropius, rather than visually amplifying


the corners of the cubic body of the
building, allowed the glass surface to
overlap the edges, thereby creating the
impression of lightness.

Gropius consistently separated the parts THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL (1925-26) DESSAU,
of the Bauhaus building according to GERMANY
their functions and designed each
differently. He thereby arranged the
different wings asymmetrically .
BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN

THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL (1925-26) DESSAU, GERMANY


Image Source: http://www.archdaily.com/375067/happy-birthday-to-bauhaus-founder-and-acclaimed-modernist-walter-gropius [ONLINE]

Masters House, Bauhaus School (192526) in Dessau


FIRST MODERNS WALTER GROPIUS
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modernist-walter-gropius [ONLINE]

Masters House, Bauhaus School (192526) in Dessau


FIRST MODERNS WALTER GROPIUS
FIRST MODERNS WALTER GROPIUS

Bauhaus School (192526) in Dessau


FIRST MODERNS WALTER GROPIUS
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Bauhaus School (192526) in Dessau


BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN
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Marcel Breuer, Metal Chair (1925)


BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN
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Marcel Breuer, Metal Chair (1925)


BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF DESIGN

POSTERS FOR EXHIBITIONS AT BAUHAUS SCHOOL


BAUHAUS SCHOOL

MARCEL BREUR AFRICAN CHAIR


BAUHAUS SCHOOL

PAUL KLEE
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LAZSLO MOHOLY NAGY


BAUHAUS SCHOOL
BAUHAUS SCHOOL

BAUHAUS TYPOGRAPHY
BAUHAUS SCHOOL

JOSEF HARTWIG & WALTER GROPIUS BILDERGALERIE TEAPOT (1924), Marianne


Bradt
BAUHAUS SCHOOL

Piet Mondrian Bauhaus


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Frampton, Kenneth (1980 (1992)). Modern Architecture: A Critical History (3rd Edition
ed.). Thames and Hudson. pp. 210218
Crouch, Christopher. 2000. "Modernism in Art, Design and Architecture", New York:
St. Martins Press
Otto Wagner. Translated by Harry Francis Mallgrave. Modern Architecture: A
Guidebook for His Students to This Field of Art. Getty Center for the History of Art and
the Humanities. 1988.
Kostof, Spiro. 1985. A history of architecture: settings and rituals. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Watkin, David. 1986. A history of Western architecture. New York: Thames and
Hudson.
Colquhoun, Alan. 2002. Modern architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wynn, Gareth Williams. History of Bauhaus. [Filmed May 2012]. YouTube video,
14:56, Posted [May 2012] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hj3XE0KxdXc
http://www.archdaily.com/576187/spotlight-adolf-loos