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Management

Definition, Nature,
Importance And Functions
of Management
Presented By:
Prem khati
Concept of management

In simple the process of collecting the dfferent


types of resources, coordinating them and
implementing them in the proper way to
achieve the predetermined goals of the
organization is known as management.
It can be describe Manage+men+t which
means managing the men tactfully to achieve
the goals.
Concept of Management
Management is the attainment of organizational goals
in an effective and efficient manner through planning,
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling
organizational resources.

Organizational resources include men(human beings),


money, machines and materials.
Concept of Management
Management is the art of getting things done
through and with the people in formally
organized groups.
_ Koontz H.
Management is the process of Planning,
Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
to accomplish organizational objectives
through the coordinated use of human and
material resources.
Features of Management
Management is a distinct process.
Management is an organized activity
Management aims at the accomplishment of
predetermined objectives.
Management is both a science and an art.
Management is a group activity
Management principles are universal in nature
Management integrates human and other
resources.
Management as a process with four functions

The four basic management functions:


planning, organizing, leading and controlling

1. Planning &Decision making


2. Organizing & Staffing
3. Leading
4. Controlling.
Importance of Management
Achievement of Group Goals
Optimum Utilization of Resources
Fulfillment of Social Obligations
Stability
Human Development
The Four Functions of Management

Planning
Select goals
& ways to
Controlling attain them
Monitor Organizing
activities & Assign
make responsibility
corrections for tasks
Leading
Use influence
to motivate
1. Planning
Planning is the most basic or primary function of
management. It is basically deciding in advance,
what is to be done; when is to be done and by
whom it is to be done.
2. Organizing
After planning, next step is organizing. The
process of organizing consists of following
steps:
1. Determining and defining activities to
achieve goal.
2. Grouping of activities into convenient and
logical group.
3. Assigning duties to people at various levels.
Contd.
4. Delegating authority to people at different
level
5. Defining and fixing responsibility for
performance
3. Leading
It consists of :
1. Issuing orders and instructions
2. Supervision of Work
3. Motivation i.e. creating willingness to work
4. Communication with employees
5. Leadership or influencing the behavior of
employees.
4. Controlling
It consists of:
1. Establishing standards for measurement of
performance
2. Measuring performance and comparing with
standard
3. Finding reasons for variation among
different employees performance
4. Taking corrective action for attainment of
goal
Concept Of Manager

The person who performs the activities of


management is known as manager.
Managers are the main or head person of the
organization.
They manage all the resources for the organization,
co-ordinate them and implement them in the
effective way to achieve the goals.
Managers

Managers
# The person who takes the responsibility of management
of the organization
# The people responsible for supervising the use of an
organizations resources to meet its goals
Manager

Who co-ordinates and oversees the work of


other people so that organizational goals
can be accomplished.
No two managers job are exactly alike .
All managers perform certain functions,
enact certain roles and display a set of skills
in their job.
Importance of managers in organization

Manager plays very significant role in planning and


making decisions of the organization.
Control and monitor the employees.
Facilitate the work of the employees.
Responsible for the allocation of the resources available.
Managers also set the short term goals of the company and
they also facilitate the top executive committee in making
long term decisions about the company.
For ensuring that employee are moving in the
right directions for attaining goals, managers keep
checking their work.
TYPES OF MANAGERS

FIRST-LINE MANAGERS- often called


supervisors stand at the base of the managerial
hierarchy
MIDDLE MANAGERS- heads of various
departments and organize human and other
resources to achieve organizational goals
TOP MANAGERS- set organizational goals,
strategies to implement them and make decisions
Relative Amount of Time That Managers
Spend on the Four Managerial Functions
Managerial skill
The ability to make business decision and lead
subordinate within a company.
Three most common skill include:
1)Conceptual-the ability to understand concept, develop idea
and implement strategy. Competencies include
communication ability, response behaviour, negotiation
tactics.
2) Human skills - the ability to interact and motivate;
3) Technical - the knowledge and proficiency in the trade.
Managerial skills

Conceptual skills
The ability to see the organization as a whole and the
relationships among its parts.
Involves knowing where ones department fits into
the total organization and how the organization fits
into the industry, community and the broader
business and social environment.
The ability to think strategically-to take the broad,
long-term view.
Managerial skills

Human skills
The ability to work well with other people
The ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead,
communicate and resolve conflicts.
Technical skills
Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field
Includes mastery of the methods, techniques and
equipment involved in specific functions such as
engineering, manufacturing or finance.
Robert L. Katyzs three essential skills

Skills Needed at Different Management Levels


Basic types of Management Skills
1. Technical Skill ability to use tools, procedures &
techniques in a specialized area.
2. Human Skill ability to work with, understand &
motivate people as individual or groups.
3. Conceptual Skill mental ability to coordinate &
integrate all of an organizations activities,
especially in the long-term decisions affecting the
organization. It is needed to see the organization
as a whole & recognize how the various factors in
a situation are interrelated so actions taken are in
the best interests if the organization.
What is a Role?
A role is a set of
responsibilities organised (or a
pattern of behaviours used) to
produce specific outputs
related to a specific function/
position.
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The Managerial Roles
- Henry Mintzberg

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A. Interpersonal Roles arise directly from the formal authority the
manager has and involve interpersonal relationships.
1. Figurehead role
The manager performs ceremonial and symbolic duties by virtue
of his position. They include: receiving dignitaries, attending
parties, visiting the sick employees, etc.
2. Leadership role
This role is particularly performed by heads of units or
departments. As heads managers are responsible for the work of
people in that unit. As a leader he gives directions, appraises
performance, correct mistakes, disciplines staff, motivates
subordinates, determines rewards and punishments, etc.
3. Liaison role
The manager ensures contacts with other units and outside
agencies on behalf of own unit. He works more as a public
relations officer.

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B. Informational Roles. Due to his status and contacts the manager
gets to know a lot of information which may not be available to his
subordinates. This information he uses in a variety of ways for the
effective functioning of his unit.
4. Monitor
As a monitor of information, the manager scans his environment for
information. As a monitor of information he is continuously keeping
his ears open for all sources. Typically, this is done by reading papers
and talking with others.
5. Disseminator
After having acquired information, the manager also passes this
information relatively to his subordinates, superiors and colleagues.
6. Spokesman role
The manager represents his unit and its problems in different forums.
As a spokesman, the manager presents the problem of his unit to
others, and presents information to others who control his unit and
so on.
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C. Decisional Roles. By virtue of the position and authority vested in him,
a manager is continuously making decisions dealing with the unit's
strategy, allocation of resources, solving problems, etc.
7. Entrepreneurial role
The manager seeks to respond to the changing conditions of
environment. He is constantly looking for new ideas and initiating
development projects.
8. Disturbance handler
He responds to pressures and crisis situations.
9. Resource allocater
This role involves the allocation of resources: human, physical, financial
and other forms of resources to get things done. Allocation of his own
time and powers are important dimension
10. Negotiator
The manager is carrying on negotiations with external as well as
internal agents. The negotiator role is very important as the manager's
capability to negotiate determines the unit's performance.

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Category Role Activity Examples

Informational Monitor Seek and acquire Scan/read trade


(managing by work-related press, periodicals, reports;
information) information attend seminars and
training; maintain personal
contacts

Disseminator Communicate/ Send memos and reports;


disseminate inform staffers and
information to subordinates of decisions
others within the
organization

Spokesperson Communicate/tra Pass on memos, reports and


nsmit information informational materials;
to outsiders participate in
conferences/meetings and
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report progress
Interpersonal Figurehead Perform social Greet visitors, sign legal
(managing through and legal documents, attend
people) duties, act as ribbon cutting
symbolic ceremonies,
leader host receptions, etc.

Leader Direct and Includes almost all


motivate interactions with
subordinates, subordinates
select and train
employees

Liaison Establish and Business


maintain correspondence,
contacts within participation in meetings
and outside the with representatives
organization of other divisions or
organizations.
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Decisional Entrepreneur Identify new Implement innovations;
(managing ideas and initiate Plan for the future
through action) improvement
projects

Disturbance Deals with Settle conflicts between


Handler disputes or subordinates; Choose
problems and strategic alternatives;
takes corrective Overcome crisis
action situations

Resource Decide where to Draft and approve of


Allocator apply resources plans, schedules,
budgets; Set priorities

Negotiator Defends Participates in and


business directs negotiations
interests within team,
department, and
organization 33
A manager does not perform each of these roles
in isolation. In fact all these roles are linked and in
reality it may become difficult to separate them.
Some managers may be performing more of one
set of roles than others. Most managers
irrespective of their levels and nature perform, to
a little degree at least, all these roles.
In the real world, these roles overlap and a
manager must learn to balance them in order to
manage effectively. While a managers work can
be analyzed by these individual roles, in practice
they are intermixed and interdependent.
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Managerial Skills
Skill is the knowledge and ability that
enables one to do a job very well.
Managers need to develop different
skills in order to perform their duties
effectively. There are some basic
skills, which all managers should
possess.

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Exercise: Managerial Skills

What skills you require to


perform the role of a
manager?

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Managerial Skills
Robert Katz identified three types of skills to make a manager
effective: technical, human and conceptual.
1. Technical skills involve an understanding of, and proficiency in a
specific kind of activity particularly one involving methods,
processes, procedures and techniques.
2. Human skills reflect the ability of a manager to work effectively
as a team member and build cooperative effort within the team he
heads. Human skills deal with working with people.
3. Conceptual skills involve the ability to see the enterprise as a
whole. It includes recognising how the various functions of an
organisation depend on one another and how changes in one part
affect all the other parts and it extends to visualising the
relationship of the individual business to the organisation, the
community and the political, social and economic forces of the
nation as a whole.

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Management Skills

40% 50% 10%

30% 45% 25%

10% 40% 50%

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- Robert Katz
Managerial Skills
Communication Time Management
Leadership Managing Discipline
Listening Motivation
Delegation Managing conflict
Critical Thinking Managing meeting
Trustworthy Managing diversity
Decision Making Maintaining integrity

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