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The World Through Our Senses

SENSORY ORGANS
Sensory Organs
They all contribute to us something special. And that is
our senses.
Changes in the surrounding are called stimuli.
Each sensory organ has special structures that are very
sensitive to stimuli.
These structures are called receptors.
For example, our ears detect stimuli when we hear
something. The way the stimulus travels through our
body is described below.
Sensory Organs

Stimulus > Receptors > Nerves > Brain > Nerves


>Effectors
Sense of Touch

The skin is the sensory organ for touch


It is the largest organ in the body
The skin can detect changes in temperatures,
pain, touch and pressure.
The skin has special receptors to detect each of
these stimuli.
The Sense of Touch
1. Slight pressure is detected by the Touch
Receptor.
2. Pain Receptors detect the slightest pain as
they lie very close to the surface of the skin.
3. Heat Receptors are sensitive to heat.
4. The cold is detected by Cold Receptors.
5. Pressure Receptors are only sensitive to
heavy pressure as they lie deep within the
skin.
The Skin
KBAT QUESTIONS
Aminah followed a school tour to visit a handicraft centre
managed by Malaysian Association for the Blind. She was fascinated
by the handicrafts produced by blind people who only rely on their
sense of touch.
1. In your opinion, what are the two receptors that allow blind
people to make handicraft?
2. During the visit, the teacher told the students that blind people
used their fingertips to read Braille. Explain why they use
their fingertips instead of their toes to read Braille?
3. Aminah bought a key chain as a souvenir for her friend. While
paying, she found that the blind cashier could return the balance
of her money accurately. Explain how the blind cashier could
return her balance accurately?
Answer
1. Touch receptors
2. Pressure receptors

1. The fingertips have more receptors compared to the toes.


This increase the sensitivity of the sense of touch

1. She use the sense of touch. At the corner of note, there is a


mark in Braille that helps the blind to identify notes
accurately.
The Nose
The Nose

Mucous in the nasal cavity lines warms and moistens the


air before it enters the lungs.
The roof of the nasal cavity has many receptors and
sensory cells to detect smell.
Chemicals released by food, perfume and flowers into the
air are known as smells.
The Nose

The chemicals dissolve in the mucous lining


and stimulate the sensory cells which in
turn, send out nerve impulses to the brain
which interpret them as a smell.
KBAT QUESTIONS
Why does a person who has a flu loses his or
her appetite?

Suggest how to increase appetite during flu


infection
Answer
The nose produces too much mucus that
prevents the chemicals from stimulating the
receptors.

Drink plenty of water helps us to loose the


mucus in nose and relieve congestion.
The Tongue
Our tongue is the sensory organ for taste.

It can detect four basic tastes :


Salty
Sweet
Sour
Bitter
The Tongue
The Tongue

The chemicals of the food dissolve in our saliva as


we chew. The dissolved chemicals then stimulate
the taste receptors in our taste buds to produce
nerve impulses, which are then sent to the brain
where they will be identified as tastes.
The Tongue
Our sense of smell improves our sense of taste. As we chew,
some chemicals from the food dissolve in our saliva and
stimulate the taste buds. But there are also some chemicals
that move into our nasal passages. These chemicals stimulate
the sensory cells in our nose.
Taste
The food is tasteless when you have a cold.Why?
It's because the smell from the food cannot reach the sensory
cells in the nose.
This is because the passages in your nose are blocked.
Since you cannot smell it, food seems tasteless.
OUR TONGUE
COOL FACTS ABOUT EAR
1
The smallest bones are the
ossicles in the middle ear:
the incus, the malleus, and
the stapes (also called the
anvil, hammer, and stirrup)
2
The inner ear is no larger
than a pencil eraser in
circumference
3
The sense of hearing is
dependent upon tiny hairs
deep inside your ear. If
you lose these hairs, you
lose your hearing.
4
Your ears never stop
hearing, even when you
sleep. Your brain just
ignores incoming sounds.
5
The majority of
individuals suffering
from hearing loss are
under the age of 65
The Ear
The ear is the sensory organ of sound.
The sense of hearing is sensitive to the sound
stimuli.
The human ear can be divided into three main
parts. These are known as the outer ear, the
middle ear and the inner ear.
Every structure of the ear has their own functions and
are very important.
Main parts Structure Functions

1. Pinna Collects and directs


Outer ear sounds into the ear canal

2. Ear canal Directs sounds to the


eardrum

3. Eardrum Vibrates when sound


waves hit it

4. Ossicles Amplify vibrations and


transfer them to the oval
Middle ear window

5. Oval window Transfer vibrations of the


ossicles to the cochlea

6. Eustachian tube Equalizes the air pressure


on both sides of the
eardrum, preventing it
from damage
7. Cochlea Detects vibrations
and converts them
into nerve
impulses

8. Auditory nerve Carries nerve


Inner ear impulses to the brain

9. Semicircular canals Detect position and


movement of head to
help us keep our
balance
The Ear
Outer Ear

Structure
Function/Explanation
Pinna
Made of cartilage and skin and shaped like a funnel. It collects and
directs sounds into the ear canal.
Ear canal
A long tube lined with hairs. It directs sounds to the eardrum.
The Ear
Middle Ear

Structure
Function/Explanation
Eardrum
A thin membrane that seperates the outer ear from the middle ear. It vibrates
and transmits sound waves to the ossicles.
Ossicles
Made up of three small bones which is the hammer, the anvil and the stirrup.
It intensifies the vibrations of the sound waves by 22 times before
transmitting to the oval window.
Eustachian tube
A narrow tube that joins the middle ear to the throat that balances the air
pressure at both sides of the eardrum.
Oval window
An oval-shaped, thin membrane between the middle ear and the inner ear. It
transmits sound vibrations from the middle ear to the inner ear.
The Ear
Inner Ear

Structure
Function/Explanation
Cochlea
Filled with liquid and contains the ends of nerve cells. The vibration of
the oval window causes this liquid to vibrate. The vibration is detected
by the nerve cells and are then changed into impulses.
Auditory nerve
It carries the impulses to the brain which then interprets the impulses as
sound.
Semicircular canals
For body balance
How Do We Hear
1. The pinna collects sound waves and directs them along the
ear canal to the ear drum.
2. When the sound waves hit the eardrum, it vibrates.
3. The ossicles amplify the vibrations about 20 times before
transferring them to the oval window.
How DO We Hear?
4. Vibrations of the oval window set up waves which travel
through the fluid in the cochlea.
5. Receptors in the cochlea are stimulated to produce nerve
impulses.
6. The auditory canal nerve carries the impulses to the brain.
7. The brain interprets the impulses as sounds.
Mechanism of hearing
KBAT QUESTION

Bats fly around and hunt for insects in


the dark. Explain how a bat detects the
presence of insects in the dark?
Answer

Bats make sound as they fly. Sound waves


are reflected back to the bat when they hit
insects. The returning echoes (gema) give
the bats information about the distance, size
and shape of the insects.
KBAT QUESTION
Zarul always listen to loud music
by using an ear phone. Explain
the adverse effect of such a
practice.
Answer
The adverse effect of the situations is
Zaruls eardrum may damaged and this
make Zarul lost his hearing for a long
period of time.
Ahmad has carried out an activity in the hill site.

1. Complete the following statement to explain the


situation above.

reflected travelled sound

____________ can be ______________.

2. Ahmad concluded that sound can be absorbed and


reflected. Explain what medium is suitable to absorb
and reflect sound?
Facts about Sight
Most people blink every 2-10 seconds.

Each time you blink, you shut your eyes for


0.3 seconds, which means your eyes are closed
at least 30 minutes a day just from blinking.

If you only had one eye, everything would


appear two-dimensional. (This does not work
just by closing one eye.)
Facts about Sight
Owls can see a mouse moving over 150 feet away
with light no brighter than a candle.

The reason cat's and dog's eyes glow at night is


because of silver mirrors in the back of their eyes
called the tapetum. This makes it easier for them to
see at night.

An ostrich has eyes that are two inches across. Each


eye weighs more than the brain.
Sense of Sight
Sclera
Protect and maintains the shape of the eyeball.

Choroid
Absorbs light and prevents internal reflection of
light. Supplies the eye with nutrients and oxygen.

Retina Detects light and produces nerve impulses. Cones


Detect colours in bright light. Rods detect shades of grey in
Dim light
Sense of Sight
Lens
Focuses light onto the retina

Vitreous humour
Helps in reflecting light, maintains the shape of the eyeball.

Suspensory ligaments
Hold the lens in its position
Sense of Sight
Ciliary body
Contracts and relaxes to change the thickness of the
lens.
Conjunctiva
Protects the cornea

Aqueous humour
Helps in refracting light, maintains the shape of the
eyeball.
Sense of Sight
Cornea
Refracts light onto the retina

Pupil
Controls the amount of light thats enters the eyes.

Iris
Controls the size of the pupil
Sense of Sight
Yellow spot
Detects light or any images that fall on it.

Blind spot
It is the spot where the optic nerve leaves the
eyeball

Optic nerve
Carries nerve impulses from the retina to the brain
Cows eyes
HOW DO WE SEE
HOW DO WE SEE
HOW DO WE SEE
1. LIGHT RAYS TRAVEL FROM THE OBJECT
TO THE EYE.

2. AS THE LIGHT PASS THROUGH THE EYE,


THEY ARE REFRACTED (BENT) BY THE
CORNEA, AQUEOUS HUMOUR, LENS AND
THE VITREOUS HUMOUR.
HOW DO WE SEE
3. AN UPSIDE DOWN IMAGE (PICTURE) IS
FORMED ON THE RETINA.

4. THE PHOTORECEPTORS ON THE RETINA SEND


NERVE IMPULSES ALONG THE OPTIC NERVE TO
THE BRAIN.

5. THE BRAIN INTERPRETS THE IMPULSES AND


ALLOWS US TO SEE THE OBJECT THE RIGHT
WAY UP.
REFLECTION
AND
REFRACTION
Short- sightedness
SHORT SIGHTEDNESS
A person can see near objects clearly but
cannot focus on distance objects.
Light from distance object is focused in
front of the retina, so the image become
blur.
This is because the lens is too thick or
eyeball too long
Short sightedness can be corrected using
concave lens.
Normal focus

Short sightedness (Myopia)


Distance vision blurry, near usually OK.
Short-sighted Short-sighted
focus correction
Long-sightedness
LONG SIGHTEDNESS
A long sighted person can see distant
objects clearly but cannot focus on near
objects.
Light from a near object converges to a
point behind the retina, so the image is blur.
This is either because the lens is too thin or
the eyeball is too short.
Long sightedness can be corrected using
convex lens.
Long-sightedness
(Hyperopia)
Difficulty seeing clearly and comfortably
up close.
Long-sighted
Long-sighted
correction
focus
ASTIGMATISM
Astigmatism
Irregular curvature of the eye (shaped
more like a football than a basketball)
Light in different planes focuses at
different points
A

B
90

180
LIMITATIONS OF SIGHT

The blind spot


Optical illusions
OPTICAL ILLUSION

The imaged formed in the eye is


accurate but the brain plays a
trick on us and makes the image
misleading.
KBAT QUESTIONS
Explain the change in the size of the pupil when a
person moves
i. from a bright area to a dark area
ii. From a dark area to a bright area

State the change which occurs in the eye lens


when a person
i. Looks at a plane in the sky
ii. Reads a message on the mobile phone
Kim Seng has blurred vision and cannot
see near or far object clearly. Why?
Explain.

Rakesh cannot drive because he fails to


distinguish between red and green
colours. Why? Explain.
List down the uses for each optical
instruments below:
1. Periscope to see the hidden
object/object at the sea surface
2. Microscope to see tiny particles
like bacteria
3. Binocular to see distance object
4. Telescope to see star, planets and
others

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