Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 55

Earthquake Design Using

1997 Uniform Building Code

Dr. Hathairat Maneetes


Department of Rural Roads
The UBC was introduced in the 1927

From the early 80s, the


earthquake design provisions in
UBC changed rapidly and
substantially in response to the
lessons learned from several Soft
major earthquakes (e.g. 1971 story
San Fernando earthquake and
1994 Northridge earthquake)

Spiral

1971 San ties

Fernando
earthquake Normal
ties

Confinement
Another example of soft story
effects
1997 UBC has several important modifications
following the 1994 Northridge earthquake.

1994 Northridge earthquake


Some of the major changes include
Strength-based (compared with
allowable stress approach for the
previous versions)
Removal of pre-qualified steel
connection details
Requirements to consider liquefaction
Addition of near-fault factor to base
shear formulation
Deformation compatibility
requirements
Redundancy requirements
Stricter detailing for non-participating
elements
Aligned with NEHRPs provisions for
smooth transition into International
Building Code (IBC) in 2000
Three model buildings codes for seismic design
in the United States.
Three model building codes in US:
BOCA National Building Code
(NBC) by BOCA
NEHRP SEAOC
Uniform Building Code (UBC) by
ICBO
Standard Building Code (SBC) by
SBCCI
Materials code
accompanying IBC ASCE 7

SBC BOCA
NBC
There are three methods to estimate inertia or
earthquake forces.
Resultant (inertia)
earthquake force
distribution
Response (time) history method
Linear (elastic) or nonlinear (inelastic)
Apply acceleration history directly to base of
numerical model of structure
Response spectrum method
Linear (elastic) approach to calculate the
modal (peak values) responses
Ground
Modal responses combined (using SRSS or
acceleration CQC) to give design values
time
Equivalent static-force method
Linear approach (assume response
Earthquake dominated by 1st mode response)
acceleration
Nonlinear approach used for rehabilitation
(Push-over analysis)
Complexity
Typical response spectrum of a particular
ground motion.
Peak response acceleration, ar,peak

Idealized for design


purposes
Actual

Short to
medium
period Long Period Period (T)

M Period

M
K T 2
K

a Ground
acceleration
time
The equivalent static force procedure is a simplification
of the dynamic response spectrum method.
Consider more than one
mode to get realistic
results
Response
Spectrum
Method
T6 T5 T4 T3 T2 T1

Building model Multiple (e.g. Decoupled


six) degrees SDOF
of freedom

Consider only the


Equivalent fundamental (1st) mode
to simply analysis
Static
force
Method T1
UBC-97 is specific about which analysis method
may or must be used.
Static Lateral-force Seismic Regular structure Irregular
Procedure limitations: Zones structure

1
All structures (regular or
irregular) in Seismic Zone 1 or
in Zone 2 with occupancy 2A and 2B
category 4 or 5. (with
occupancy
category 4
or 5)
Regular structures using one
of the structural systems
listed in Table 16-N if they
are under 240 feet 3,4
(7,315.2cm) in height.

Irregular structures not more


than 5 stories or 65 feet < 240 < 5 stories or 65
(1,981.2cm) in height. feet feet
If these conditions are not satisfied, the structure
shall be designed using dynamic method.
Structures with a flexible upper
portion supported on a rigid lower
portion if all of the following
conditions are met: So how do we
define building
When both portions are irregularities with
considered separately, they can
both be classified as regular. respect to
The average story stiffness of earthquake design?
the lower portion is at least ten
times the average story stiffness
of the upper portion.
The period of the whole structure
is no more than 1.1 times the
period of the upper portion
considered as a separate
structure fixed at the base.
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Vertical Kx < 0.7Kx+1 or
Irregularities
Kx < 0.8 (Kx+1 + Kx+2 + Kx+3)/3
Where K is the story lateral stiffness

x+3
x+2
x+1

Stiffness irregularity
UBC-97 Table 16-L soft story
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Vertical
Irregularities Wx+1 > 1.5Wx or Wx+1 > 1.5Wx+2
Where W is the story effective weight (or
mass)

x+2
x+1

Weight (mass)
UBC-97 Table 16-L irregularity
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Vertical Where bi: Horizontal
Irregularities b1 > 1.3b2 dimension of lateral
force-resisting system at
b2 story i

Lateral
force
resisting
elements

b1
Vertical geometric
UBC-97 Table 16-L irregularity
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Vertical l2: offset
Irregularities l2 > l1
l1: length of lateral-load
l2 resisting elements

l1
In-plane discontinuity in
UBC-97 Table 16-L vertical lateral-force
resisting element
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Vertical
Irregularities Sx+1/Sx < 0.8
Where S: Total strength of
lateral force resisting elements

x+1

Discontinuity in capacity
UBC-97 Table 16-L weak story
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Plan Irregularities

Torsional irregularity to
be considered when
UBC-97 Table 16-M diaphragms are not flexible
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height. Deformation
incompatibility
Less stiff; more leading to stress
Stiffer; less
concentration
Plan Irregularities deformation deformation

Stress
concentration
s

Re-entrant corners
UBC-97 Table 16-M
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Plan Irregularities
Aopening > 0.5Agross

Agross Open

Aopening

Diaphragm discontinuity
UBC-97 Table 16-M
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Vertical lateral force resisting
Plan Irregularities elements offset out-of-plane

Out-of-plane offsets
UBC-97 Table 16-M
There are two types of irregularities, on plan or
along the building height.
Plan Irregularities

These lateral
force resisting
elements are
not parallel to
major axes

These lateral
force resisting
elements are
not parallel
and symmetric
to major axes

Nonparallel systems
UBC-97 Table 16-M
The UBC-97 governing equations are
Spectral Acceleration
C
Estimation of Total Base Shear 2.5Ca Ts V

2.5C a
CV I T0 0.2Ts
Equation 30-4 V W
RT
CV

But need not be greater than T

2.5C a I
Equation 30-5 V W Ca
R
But need to be at least
Equation 30-6 V 0.11Ca IW T0 Ts Period (T)

UBC-97 Design Spectra


Equation 30-7
0.8ZN V IW
V (for Seismic zone 4)
R
Inertial forces is developed from
Newtons Second Law.
Damping

Lumped ar = a ar = f(M, K, a, c)
mass (M)
ar = a
F = M.a F = M ar
F = M.a
Flexible with
Infinitely rigid
stiffness K

a a a
Rigid box of Ground
mass M fixed acceleration
time
to the ground

RIGID NON-RIGID BODY


BODIES
UBC-97 has broadly zoned US territories into
six seismic zones.

Seismic
Zones
0
1

seismic risk
Increasing
2A
2B

UBC-97 Figure 16-2: 3


Seismic Zone Map of 4
the United States
Each seismic zone is assigned a factor that
corresponds to the maximum ground acceleration.

Seismic Seismic
Zone Zone Factor
Z
0 0

1 0.075

2A 0.15

2B 0.2

3 0.3

4 0.4

UBC-97 Table 16-I


The effective ground acceleration imparted to
the structure is affected by the soil conditions.
UBC-97 Table 16-J
a = ag a ag

a a Reference soil
type

ag
Default soil profile
Ground
acceleration ag
based on SB
soil profile Other soil profiles tend to
(i.e. rock). amplify the ground a < ag (Hard rock, rock)
acceleration impart to the
structure base a > ag (All other soil profiles)
Seismic coefficients represent the seismicity of the
region and the characteristics of the soil.

Seismic Coefficient Ca Seismic Coefficient Cv

ag

UBC-97 Table 16-Q a UBC-97 Table 16-R

Short to medium period Long period


Response Modification Factor to account for
nonlinear building response.
Need to consider the Base Shear
Elastic response
inherent ability of the
structure to reduce the V
Reduction in
earthquake forces through earthquake forces
overstrength, ductility and arising from nonlinear
damping. building response
V/R
A response reduction Actual Inelastic
factor or R-factor is response
introduced to account for
the beneficial effects of Higher
nonlinear building behavior. ductility
Displacement
R-value greater than 1,
inelastic response is s
assumed and earthquake M = (0.7R)s
forces is reduced.
R-value is a convenient method to describe the
nonlinear response of the structural system.
Total V
Base
System 1
Shear
V/R1

Increase in inelastic
response
System 2
V/R2

System 3
V/R3

R3 > R2 > R3

Displacement
UBC-97 categories 7 basic structural systems with
R-values varying from 2.2 to 8.5
These are
maximum values
for each structural
system type; lower
value can be used
if required.

Great care must


be exercised in
selecting the R-
value!

UBC-97 Table 16-N


What are the common structural systems?
Lateral
Gravity

Bearing wall Building frame Moment-resisting Dual


frame system
Supports all Frame carries Specially detailed Similar to building
gravity and lateral gravity (i.e. gravity frame to support frame system
loads frame both gravity and except the gravity
Lack redundancy Shear walls or lateral loads frame also provide
R-value varies braced frames High level of secondary lateral
from 2.8 to 5.5 carry lateral load ductility and force resistance.
Need to consider redundancy R-value varies
deformation R-value varies from 4.2 to 8.5
compatibility from 3.5 to 8.5
R-value varies
from 5.5 to 7.0
Examples of structural systems
Building frames

Column

Beam

Concentric braced frames (CBF)


Example of moment resisting connection
Moment frame

Steel eccentric braced Example of simple shear connection


frame (EBF) Special truss moment
frame
For essential or hazardous
buildings, the margin of
safety in seismic design needs
to be higher

The importance factor is


used to increase the
earthquake force

Depends on the occupancy


category.

In UBC-97, I is 1.25 for


essential facilities and
hazards facilities; no
enhancement for other
facilities.

UBC-97 Table 16-K


UBC-97 Load Combinations
Strength level
U = 1.2D + f1L + 1.0E f1 = 1.0 for public assembly LL>100 psf(4.9kN/m2)
Vertical
U = 0.9D + 1.0E = 1.0 for garage LL
component = 0.5 for other LL
where E = Eh + Ev
where Ev = 0.5CaID

1.2D + 0.5L + Ev
Working stress level
F = D + (W or E/1.4)
F = 0.9D + (E/1.4) 1.2D + 0.5L + Ev
F = D + 0.75 [L + (Lr or S) + (W or E/1.4)]
Eh
OR 1.2D + 0.5L + Ev
F = 4/3[D + L + (W or E/1.4)]
F = 4/3[D + L + (E/1.4)]
Numerical Example Static lateral-force
procedure Non-bearing
Determine the design seismic forces for the three- shear wall
story reinforced concrete shear wall shown using
UBC-97 static lateral-force procedure. The building 11 ft
is located in Southeastern California on rock with a
shear wave velocity of 3,000 ft/sec. The story dead 11 ft
loads are 2,200 kips, 2,000 kips and 1,700 kips for
the 1st, 2nd and roof level, respectively. The shear 13 ft
walls do not carry significant vertical loads.
(Adapted from Naeim (2001))

IMPORTANT: Always check the Building


applicability of the method is
assumed
Building of regular construction to be
No plan or height irregularity located
Total height = 35 feet < 240 feet here
UBC-97 static lateral-force method
is applicable.

UBC-97 Figure 16-2: Seismic Zone Map of the United States


Numerical Example Static lateral-force
procedure
UBC-97 Table
Seismic Importance Factor, I = 1.0
Seismic16-I Seismic
(Assumed non-essential facility) Zone Zone
Factor Z
Location is in Seismic Zone 3
0 0
Seismic Zone Factor, Z = 0.3 1 0.075
Shear velocity = 3,000 ft/sec. 2A 0.15
Soil Profile Type is SB i.e., rock 2B 0.2
3 0.3
UBC-97 Table 16-J 4 0.4 Note
corrections
Seismic Coefficients: CV = 0.3, Ca = 0.3

UBC-97 Table 16-Q UBC-97 Table 16-R


Numerical Example Static lateral-force
procedure
UBC-97 Table 16-N
Response modification factor:
Non-load bearing shear
wall, recommended highest
R-value is 5.5
Height limit is
240 ft > 35 ft (OK)

Note
corrections
Numerical Example Static lateral-force
procedure V (kips)

Estimation of Total Base Shear 1,109.7


804.5
CV I
V W
(0.3)(1.0)
5,900 1,109 .7kips
RT (5.5)( 0.29 )
194.7
But need not be greater than 0.29
Period (sec)
2.5C a I
V W
2.5(0.3)(1.0)
5,900 804 .5kips
R (5.5)
But need to be at least
V 0.11Ca IW 0.11(0.3)(1.0)5,900 194 .7kips

design base shear = 804.5 kips


Numerical Example Static lateral-force
procedure
Vertical Distribution of the Earthquake Forces.
Level x Story Story Wxhx x 103 Seismic force Story Story over-
height hx weight wx at each level shear turning
(ft) (kips) (kips.ft) Fx (kips) Vx (kips) moment
Mx (kips.ft)
3 35 1,700 59.5 351.7 351.7 3,869
2 24 2,000 48.0 283.7 635.4 10,858
1 13 2,200 28.6 169.1 804.5 21,317
5,900 136.1 804.5

351.7 kips Level 3 Use load combination!


283.7 kips Level 2 U = 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0E
169.1 kips Level 1 U = 0.9D + 1.0E
Numerical Example Static lateral-force
procedure
Determine story drift limits
Maximum inelastic response displacement: M = 0.7Rs

Rearranging, we have s = M/0.7R

Where M < 0.025h for T < 0.7sec (UBC-97, Section 1630.10)

1st story: s < (0.025)(13)/0.7(5.5) = 1.01 in

Other stories: s < (0.025)(11)/0.7(5.5) = 0.858 in


Other important considerations

Orthogonal effects : 100% in one direction + 30% in the


orthogonal effects (UBC-97 Section 1633.1)
Multiple lateral force resisting systems; requirements of
more restrictive one governs (UBC-97 Section 1633.2.2)
Seismic design connections must be clearly detailed in
drawings (UBC-97 Section 1633.2.3)
Deformation compatibility (UBC-97 Section 1633.2.4)
Familiarity with accompanying material codes , etc.
Time History Analysis...

Oakland, CA
The natural frequencies fell within the dominating
frequency range of the ground motions.
0.25

GILROY
0.4
Fourier Amplitude 0.2 0.3
0.2

Acceleration (g)
0.15 0.1
0
-0.1
0.1
-0.2
-0.3
0.05 -0.4
0 5 10 15 20
0 Time (sec)

0 2 4 6 8 10
0.35 Frequency (Hz)
0.4
0.3
0.3

EL CENTRO
0.25 0.2
Fourier Amplitude

Acceleration (g)
0.1
0.2
0
0.15 -0.1
-0.2
0.1 -0.3
0.05 -0.4
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (sec)
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
0.2 Frequency (Hz)
0.2
0.15
0.15
Fourier Amplitude

HOLLISTER 0.1

Acceleration (g)
0.05
0.1 0
-0.05
-0.1
0.05 -0.15
-0.2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0 Time (sec)
0 2 4 6 8 10
Frequency (Hz)
The 3 OR 7 pairs of recorded ground motions
were scaled to match the design spectrum.
SRSS of GILROY (N-S and E-W)
0.2T 1.5T
x scale factor1 1.00
0.90
PGA = 0.367 g
0.80

Spectral Acceleration (g)


0.70
SRSS of EL CENTRO (N-S and E-W) Average
0.60 response
x scale factor2 spectrum
0.50

PGA = 0.371 g 0.40

0.30 1.4 x Design Spectrum

SRSS of HOLLISTER (N-S and E-W) 0.20

x scale factor3 0.10

0.00
PGA = 0.177 g 0.612 4.587
0 1 2 3 4 5
Period (sec)

If 3 analyses performed, use the maximum response.


If 7 analyses performed, use the average response.
An Innovative Design Structural Control
Whats an innovative design???

Conventional design
ductility-based approach
nonlinear behavior of the structure
Some damage may occur

Energy-based design
protective approach
structural control
classified into 3 groups: passive, active and semi-
active, hybrid controls
INTRODUCTORY - Passive Control

Incorporating passive devices to control the structural


motion and to modify its dynamic parameters (stiffness
and damping).

Seismic (base) isolation Passive EDS Mass damper


INTRODUCTORY - Passive Control

Source-Sink Analogies [Popov et al., 1993]


Viscous Fluid
Damper

How to choose the appropriate system


for your building???

http://www.oiles.co.jp/en/menshin/building/index.html
INTRODUCTORY - Active Control

Control motion of
structure through
some external energy
source.

Schematic Details [Chaidez, 2003] Analogy with Human Body (Servio Model)
INTRODUCTORY Hybrid Systems

A series or parallel combination of an active (or semi-


active) system with a passive system.

Active Control with Base Isolation System [Chaidez, 2003; Iemura, 1994]
Thank you for your attention!

Any Questions ???