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3G Optimization

Course Outlines
Day1
Principles of 3G network optimization
Performance Monitoring
KPI analysis hierarchies
Call setup (busy hour, paging, RRC, RAB, PS session)
Call drop (RAB, DCH, radio link)
Mobility (SHO, ISHO, relocation)
HSPA setup
HSPA drop
HSPA mobility (SCC, HSUPA SHO)
Day2
Air Interface Optimization
Interference monitoring and reduction
Coverage monitoring and enhancement
Slow fading analysis
CQI monitoring and improvement (HSDPA)
Course Outlines
Day3
Traffic Monitoring
Principles
Transmitted carrier power
Received total wideband power
Code tree allocation
Channel element allocation
Number of users
Traffic Monitoring
Principles of traffic monitoring bottleneck
In the 3GPP UTRAN architecture, NBAP (Node B
Application Part) is the signaling protocol responsible
for the control of the Node B by the RNC. NBAP is
subdivided into Common and Dedicated NBAP (C-NBAP
and D-NBAP), where Common NBAP controls overall
Node B functionality, and Dedicated NBAP controls
radio links to specific user equipment. NBAP forms part
of the Iub interface.
ATM Adaptation Layer 2 (AAL2) is an ATM adaptation
layer for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

The Mobile Application Part (MAP) is an SS7 protocol


that provides an application layer for the various
nodes in GSM and UMTS mobile core networks and
GPRS core networks to communicate with each other
in order to provide services to users. The Mobile
Application Part is the application-layer protocol
used to access the Home Location Register, Visitor
Location Register, Mobile Switching Center,
Equipment Identity Register, Authentication Centre,
Short message service center and Serving GPRS
Support Node (SGSN).
Channel types and location in UTRAN
UE RNC
Node B
Logical Channels: The
logical channels define the
way in which the data will
be transferred
Transport
Channels: The 3G
transport channels along
with the logical channel
again defines the way in Logical Channels
which the data is
transferred
Physical channels: The
physical channels carry
the payload data and
govern the physical
Transport Channels
characteristics of the
signal.

Physical Channels Iub Frames


Channel types and location in UTRAN
3G UMTS Logical Channels:
The 3G logical channels include:
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) (downlink). This channel broadcasts information to UEs relevant to the cell, such as radio channels of neighboring cells,
etc.
Paging Control Channel (PCCH) (downlink). This channel is associated with the PICH and is used for paging messages and notification information.
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) (up and downlinks) This channel is used to carry dedicated control information in both directions.
Common Control Channel (CCCH) (up and downlinks). This bi-directional channel is used to transfer control information.
Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH) (bi-directional). This channel is bi-directional and only found in the TDD form of WCDMA / UMTS, where it is used
to transport shared channel control information.
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) (up and downlinks). This is a bidirectional channel used to carry user data or traffic.
Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) (downlink) A unidirectional channel used to transfer dedicated user information to a group of UEs.

3G UMTS Transport Channels:


The 3G UMTS transport channels include:
Dedicated Transport Channel (DCH) (up and downlink). This is used to transfer data to a particular UE. Each UE has its own DCH in each direction.
Broadcast Channel (BCH) (downlink). This channel broadcasts information to the UEs in the cell to enable them to identify the network and the cell.
Forward Access Channel (FACH) (down link). This is channel carries data or information to the UEs that are registered on the system. There may be more than
one FACH per cell as they may carry packet data.
Paging Channel (PCH) (downlink). This channel carries messages that alert the UE to incoming calls, SMS messages, data sessions or required maintenance such
as re-registration.
Random Access Channel (RACH) (uplink). This channel carries requests for service from UEs trying to access the system
Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH) (uplink). This channel provides additional capability beyond that of the RACH and for fast power control.
Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) (downlink).This channel can be shared by several users and is used for data that is "bursty" in nature such as that obtained
from web browsing etc.
Channel types and location in UTRAN
3G UMTS Physical Channels:
The 3G UMTS physical channels include:
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) (downlink). This channel continuously broadcasts system identification and access control information.
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) (downlink) This channel carries the Forward Access Channel (FACH) providing control information, and the Paging Channel (PACH)
with messages for UEs that are registered on the network.
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) (uplink). This channel enables the UE to transmit random access bursts in an attempt to access a network.
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) (up and downlink). This channel is used to transfer user data.
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) (up and downlink). This channel carries control information to and from the UE. In both directions the channel carries pilot bits and the
Transport Format Combination Identifier (TFCI). The downlink channel also includes the Transmit Power Control and FeedBack Information (FBI) bits.
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) (downlink). This channel shares control information to UEs within the coverage area of the node B.
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) This channel is specifically intended to carry packet data. In operation the UE monitors the system to check if it is busy, and if not it then
transmits a brief access burst. This is retransmitted if no acknowledgement is gained with a slight increase in power each time. Once the node B acknowledges the request, the data is
transmitted on the channel.
Synchronisation Channel (SCH) The synchronisation channel is used in allowing UEs to synchronise with the network.
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) This channel is transmitted by every node B so that the UEs are able estimate the timing for signal demodulation. Additionally they can be used as a beacon
for the UE to determine the best cell with which to communicate.
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) The AICH is used to inform a UE about the Data Channel (DCH) it can use to communicate with the node B. This channel assignment occurs as a result
of a successful random access service request from the UE.
Paging Indication Channel (PICH) This channel provides the information to the UE to be able to operate its sleep mode to conserve its battery when listening on the Paging Channel (PCH).
As the UE needs to know when to monitor the PCH, data is provided on the PICH to assign a UE a paging repetition ratio to enable it to determine how often it needs to 'wake up' and listen to
the PCH.
CPCH Status Indication Channel (CSICH) This channel, which only appears in the downlink carries the status of the CPCH and may also be used to carry some intermittent, or "bursty" data.
It works in a similar fashion to PICH.
Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indication Channel (CD/CA-ICH) This channel, present in the downlink is used to indicate whether the channel assignment is active or inactive to
the UE.
By using the logical, physical and transport channels it is possible to carry the data for the control and payload in a structured manner and provide efficient effective communications. The 3G
UMTS channels are thus an essential element of the overall system.
Channel Mapping DL (Network Point of View)
Logical Transport Physical
Channels Channels Channels

P-CPICH
Logical Channels: The
logical channels define the
way in which the data will BCCH BCH P-CCPCH
be transferred
Transport
Channels: The 3G PCCH PCH S-CCPCH
transport channels along
PICH Fixed
with the logical channel Power
again defines the way in AICH
which the data is CCCH
transferred FACH P/S-SCH
Physical channels: The E-HICH
physical channels carry CTCH
the payload data and E-AGCH/E-RGCH
govern the physical
characteristics of the DCCH HS- HS-PDSCH*
signal.
DSCH HS-SCCH
DTCH DCH DPDCH Power
Control
DPCCH

* Dynamic HS-PDSCH power allocation


Channel Mapping UL (Network Point of View)
Logical Transport Physical
Channels Channels Channels

Logical Channels: The logical Open


channels define the way in which PRACH Loop
CCCH RACH
the data will be transferred Power
Transport Channels: The 3G Control
transport channels along with the
logical channel again defines the
way in which the data is transferred DCCH
Physical channels: The physical
channels carry the payload data E-DPDCH
and govern the physical
E-DPCCH
characteristics of the signal.
E-DCH Power
HS-DPCCH Control
DTCH DCH DPDCH
DPCCH
Principles of traffic monitoring reactive / proactive
Node B reporting
Total DL power counters
Total DL power fluctuations
Total DL power impact on Ec/Io
Total DL power optimization flow
R99 power counters
R99 power counters
HSDPA power counters

Downlink HSUPA channels


E-AGCH (Enhanced Absolute Grant Channel): This HSUPA
channel provides the absolute limit of the power resources, i.e.
the serving grant, that the UE may use. The channel is used to
send scheduling grants from the scheduler to the UE to control
when and what data rate the UE should be used.
E-RGCH (Enhanced Relative Grant Channel): This channel is
HS-PDSCH: High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel. -> used to move the UE serving grant up, down or remain the
to carry user data HSDPA same. This HSUPA channel is generally used for relatively small
changes during an ongoing data transmission. Large changes are
HS-SCCH: High-Speed Shared Control Channel. -> carry handled by the E-AGCH.
signaling to users every TTI 2ms. E-HICH (Enhanced DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel): This
Associated DPCH, Dedicated Physical Channel. -> to carry user HSUPA channel is used to provide the acknowledgement
data R99 DL
HSDPA power fluctuations
HSDPA power dynamic share with R99
HSDPA power dynamic share with R99
PtxHighHSDPAPwr :This parameter defines the
threshold of the PtxTotal measurement that indicates
high usage of HSDPA power. Indication is used as a
trigger for the adjustment of the dynamic target level
for DCH packet scheduling when one or more HS
DSCH MAC-d flows is set up in the cell in the case of
HSDPA dynamic resource allocation. (2dB below Max
Tx Pwr)

PtxTargetPS is reduced
when

1. Total Power Usage is


bigger than Power
that is reserved for
HSDPA (usually 2 dB
below Max Tx PWR)
2. Total power usage for
Non HSPA is bigger
than Power for PS 99

Then reduce the Power


for PS 99 by 1 dB step
HSDPA power dynamic share with R99

See the load, we


have NC (RT) and
NRT.

The optimum
load is the total
of load of RT and
NRT.

If the optimum
load <
PtxTargetPs ->
reduce by 1 dB,
to give more
power to HSDPA
HSDPA power dynamic share with R99
HSDPA power dynamic share with R99
HSDPA power limitations

Because HSDPA
priority < RT
Voice/Video and
use leftover
Power.

If no RT
Voice/Video user ,
then HS can use
full power
HSDPA power limitations
RTWP sources

Noise figure (NF) and noise


factor (F) are measures of
degradation of the signal-
to-noise ratio (SNR), caused
by components in a radio-
frequency (RF) signal chain
Thermal Noise : electrical or RF noise
which generated as a result of thermal
agitation of the charge carriers which are
typically electrons within an electrical
conductor. This thermal noise actually
occurs regardless of the applied voltage
because the charge carriers vibrate as a
result of the temperature. This vibration
is dependent upon the temperature - the
higher the temperature, the higher the
agitation and hence the thermal noise
level.
Thermal noise, like other forms of noise
are random in nature. It is not possible to
predict the waveform and therefore it is
not possible to reduce the effects by
cancellation or other similar techniques.
RTWP sources

Third and higher order mixing of the two interfering RF signals can produce an interfering signal in the band of the
desired channel. Intermodulation response rejection is a measure of the capability of the receiver to receive a wanted
signal on its assigned channel frequency in the presence of two or more interfering signals which have a specific
frequency relationship to the wanted signal.
Total UL power counters
Total UL power fluctuations
Total UL power fluctuations
Total UL power fluctuations
Total UL power role of BTS commissioning
Total UL power role of intermodulation

Because of
intermodulatio
n, there is an
extra noise
which not from
load. Making
the UL Load
reduces
Total UL power role of intermodulation

Prx Autotuning ON and


PrxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute
(sample 2 dB)means

The parameter sets absolute limit


for uplink noise
autotuning compared to PrxNoise
value. For
example, Operator sets PrxNoise
initial value to -
101,5 dBm and parameter
PrxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute
is set to value 2dB. This limits
PrxNoise value
between -99,5 dBm and -103,5
dBm

PrxNoise : Defines the noise level in


the BTS digital receiver
when there is no load (thermal
noise + noise figure).
This parameter is needed in noise
rise calculations (default -105)
Total UL power impact on access

RTWP = parameter PRxNoise


(-105 dBm)
Total UL power impact on access
Total UL power optimization flow
R99 power counters
R99 power counters
HSUPA power counters
R99 code allocation principles
R99 code allocation counters
R99 code allocation blocking
R99 code allocation re-arrangement
CodeTreeUsage :The parameter
defines the minimum usage of code
tree before rearrangement is applied to
a specific cell. (def 40%)

MaxCodeRel : The parameter


defines the maximum amount of
code release actions allowed in a
code tree before
rearrangement is applied to this
code tree (def 40)
HSDPA code allocation principles
HSDPA code allocation counters
HSDPA code allocation dynamic share with R99
Bit 0: 0 Not used (Always 0), Bit 1: 1 Not used
(Always 0), Bit 2: 2 Not used (Always 0), Bit 3:
3 Not
used (Always 0), Bit 4: 4 Not used (Always 0),
Bit 5:
5 HS-PDSCH codes, Bit 6: 6 HS-PDSCH
codes, Bit
7: 7 HS-PDSCH codes, Bit 8: 8 HS-PDSCH
codes,
Bit 9: 9 HS-PDSCH codes, Bit 10: 10 HS-
PDSCH
codes, Bit 11: 11 HS-PDSCH codes, Bit 12: 12
HSPDSCH
codes, Bit 13: 13 HS-PDSCH codes, Bit
14: 14 HS-PDSCH codes, Bit 15: 15 HS-
PDSCH
codes
HSDPA code allocation dynamic share with R99

HSPDSCHMARGIMSF128 : The parameter defines the required number of free SF128 channelization codes left for
other than HSPDSCH use. The number of free codes after the HS-PDSCH code upgrade has to be equal or higher than
the parameter value, otherwise the HSPDSCH code upgrade is not allowed. Also, if the number of free codes is lower
than the value of the parameter, periodical HS-PDSCH code downgrade
can be initiated. (def 8)
HSDPA code allocation dynamic share with R99
HSDPA code allocation dynamic share with R99
DPCHOverHSPDSCHThres :This parameter
defines the number of allocated HS-PDSCH
codes that are not allowed to pre-empt by NRT
DPCH in case of NRT DPCH code congestion.
The value of the parameter is an offset from
the maximum allowed number of HS-PDSCH
codes.

HSDPAenabled of WCEL -
Dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation needs
HSDPA to be enabled in the cell.
HSPDSCHCodeSet of WCEL -
The parameter defines an offset from the
highest
number of HS-PDSCH codes as determined
by the
parameter HSPDSCHCodeSet.
HSDPADynamicResourceAllocation of
RNFC - Dynamic HS-PDSCH code allocation
needs HSDPA Dynamic Resource Allocation
to be
enabled.
HSDPA code allocation impact of HSUPA

SF16 is 16. 1
branch for
common
channel

If there is
HSUPA then
need another
SF16 branch
for DL Ch
HSUPA (E-
AGCH) -> 15-
1=14 SF 16
High code congestion optimization flow
BTS channel cards
R99 Dimensioning
HSDPA Dimensioning logical cell group
TCELL : Each cell in a BTS uses a System Frame
Number (SFN) counter, which is the BTS Frame
Number (BFN) counter delayed by a number of
chips defined by the value of Tcell.
Tcell is used for defining the start of SCH, CPICH,
Primary CCPCH and DL Scrambling Code(s) in a
cell relative to BFN. The main purpose is to avoid
having the overlapping SCHs in different cells
belonging to the same BTS. An SCH burst is 256
chips long.
The values can be chosen as follows: 0 chips for
the 1st cell of the BTS, 256 chips for the 2nd cell
of the BTS, 512
chips for the 3rd cell of the BTS, and so on.
HSDPA Dimensioning - rules
HSDPA Dimensioning - rules
HSDPA Dimensioning - rules
HSUPA Dimensioning - principles
HSUPA Dimensioning - rules
HSUPA Dimensioning - rules
High CE occupation optimization flow
Number of users - licenses
Number of users - counters
Number of users - counters
Thank You