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4 ECOLOGY

Define species, habitats, populations, community,


ecosystems and ecology.

Habitat: the environment in which a species


normally lives or the location of a living organism.

Population: a group of organisms of the same


species who live in the same area at the same time.

Community: a group of populations living and


interacting with each other in an area.

Ecosystem: a community and its abiotic


environment.

Ecology: the study of relationships between living


organisms and between organisms and their
environment.
Species
A group of organisms that:

-Similar physiological and morphological


characteristics that can be observed and
measured

-Ability to interbreed and produce fertile


offspring.

-genetically distinct from other species

- Common phylogeny (family tree)


HYBRIDS
LION + TIGER = LIGER
(dad) (mom)
SAME GENUS DIFFERENT
SPECIES

TIGER + LION = TIGON


(dad) (mom)
Over to you .
Research:
Name of animal
Photo of original parents
and hybrid (if possible)
Fertility
1st and 2nd generations
Concerns?
4x A4 papers
Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph.

Autotrophs are organisms that synthesize their


organic molecules from simple inorganic
substances. (e.g. plants) = producers

Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain organic


molecules from other organisms. (e.g. animals)
Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and
saprotrophs.

Consumer: an organism that ingests other organic


matter that is living or recently killed.

Detritivore: an organism that ingests non-living


organic matter.

Saprotroph: an organism that lives on or in non-living


organic matter, secreting digestive enzymes into it
and absorbing the products of digestion
communities

Group of populations living and interacting


with each other in an area.

Interactions: feeding on another or being


eaten
What is meant by a food chain, giving three
examples, each with at least three linkages (four
organisms).

A food chain shows the direction of energy flow from


one species to another.

For example, an arrow from A to B means that A is


being eaten by B

and therefore indicates the direction of the energy


flow.
The food chain YouTube

Energy Pyramid and Food Web - YouTube


The direction of the arrow must always be to the next consumer starting with
The producer (plant)
What is meant by a food web?

A food web is a diagram that shows all the feeding


relationships in a community with arrows which
show the direction of the energy flow.
Define trophic level.

Trophic level: the trophic level of an organism is its


position in the food chain.
Producers, primary consumers, secondary
consumers and tertiary consumers are examples
of trophic levels
Trophic levels of organisms in a food chain and a
food web.

Plants or any other photosynthetic organisms are the


producers.

Primary consumers are the species that eat the


producers.

Secondary consumers are the species that eat the


primary consumers and

tertiary consumers in turn eat the secondary


consumers.
Light is the initial energy source for almost all
communities.

Light is the initial energy source for almost all


communities
Energy flow in a food chain.

Producers receive their energy from light energy


(the sun) by means of photosynthesis.

After this, the energy in organic matter flows from


producers to primary consumers to secondary
consumers to tertiary consumers.

This is because producers will be eaten by primary


consumers which in turn will be eaten by
secondary consumers and so on.

However, between these trophic levels, energy is


always lost.

All of the trophic levels lose energy as heat


through cell respiration..
Also, as the organic matter passes from one
trophic level to the next, not all of it is digested
and so we have loss of energy in organic matter
through faeces.

This energy then passes on to the detritivores and


saprotrophs.

Another energy loss occurs through tissue loss and


death which can happen at any trophic level.

Once again, this energy would be passed on to


detritivores and saprotrophs as they digest these.

Detritivores and saprotrophs in turn lose energy as


heat through cell respiration
Summary:

Energy flows from producers to primary consumers,


to secondary consumers, to tertiary consumers...

Energy is lost between trophic levels in the form of


heat through cell respiration, faeces, tissue loss
and death.

Some of this lost energy is used by detritivores and


saprotrophs. These in turn also lose energy in the
form of heat through cell respiration

Saprotrophs = saprophytes

Reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy.

How MUCH

How FAST
energy flows from one trophic
level to the next in a community

It is about the RATE OF ENERGY production


Not just the quantity
kJ m-2yr-1 = energy per unit area per unit time: kilojoules per square meter per year)

Third

First
This model shows the typical loss of energy from
solar radiation through the various trophic levels.

Note how this causes a tapering of the model

The volume of one layer is 10% of the layer below.

It is this loss of energy which in part makes food


chains relatively short.

In extreme environments like the arctic the initial


trapping of energy by producers is low. Thus the
food chains are short.

In a tropic rainforest the trapping of energy is more


efficient and therefore food chains are longer, webs
are more complex
Energy transformations are never 100% efficient.

Energy transformations are never 100% efficient.

Energy enters and leaves ecosystems, but


nutrients must be recycled.

Energy is not recycled.


Constantly being supplied to the ecosystem through
light energy.
Energy is lost from the ecosystem in the form of heat
through cell respiration.
Nutrients must be recycled as there is only a limited
supply of them.
Nutrients are absorbed by the environment, used by
organisms and then returned to the environment.
Saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers)
recycle nutrients.

Saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers)


recycle nutrients.