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ASAS DAN KONSEP EKOSISTEM

Sir Arthur Tansley, a Renaissance man coined


the concept in 1935
Eugene Odum : Took concept of Ecosystem
and brought it to the attention of the
ecological community and made it a
fundamental idea in society
Diagram showing ecological organization from
Odum (1959)

P C T O O O P C E B
R E I R R R O O C I
O L S G G G P M O O
T L S A A A U M S S
O U N N N L U Y P
P E S I A N S H
S T I T E
L Y
I T E R
A S M
O Y M E
S T N
M E
M
Diagram Showing Ecological Organization From
Odum (1971)
BIOTIC Popula- Commun-
Genes Cells Organs Organisms tions ities
COMPONENTS

Plus

ABIOTIC Matter Energy


COMPONENTS

Equals

BIOSYSTEMS Genetic Cell Organ Organismic Population Ecosystems


Systems Systems Systems Systems Systems
Odum, 1960

Systems Analysis and Cybernetics


Ecosystems

Current Understanding of Ecosystems


~ How is the term used?
Ecosystems
Common usage-- Everything is related to
everything else
Basic Components of an Ecosystem
PRODUCERS
Green Plants
Bacteria

PRIMARY CONSUMERS
Basic Plant Herbivores
Plant Parasites
Nutrients

SECONDARY CONSUMERS
DECOMPOSERS Omnivores
Saprophytic Carnivores
bacteria and fungi Animal Parasites
Scavengers
The Study of Population Dynamics
Populations change in size, density, dispersion and age structure.

Population density the number of individuals of a population that


inhabit a certain unit of land or water area.

Population dispersion refers to how individuals of a population are


spaced within a region.

Age structure of a population is usually described as the


pre-reproductive stage, the reproductive stage and the post-
reproductive stage. A population with a large reproductive stage is
likely to increase, while a population with a large post-
reproductive stage is likely to decrease.
Population Size
Four variables influence/govern
population size: (1) births, (2)
deaths, (3) immigration, and (4)
emigration.

Increase in population occurs by birth


and immigration.
Decrease in population occurs by death
and emigration.

Rapidly growing populations have four


characteristics:
1. Individuals in the population reproduce early in
life.
2. Individuals have short periods between
generations.
3. Individuals have long reproductive lives.
4. Individuals produce multiple offspring each time
they reproduce.
Biotic Potential vs.
Environmental Resistance
The biotic potential max (rmax) is the population's
capacity for growth. The intrinsic rate of increase
(r) is the rate of population growth with unlimited
resources.

environmental resistance
consists of factors that limit population growth.

limiting Factors
No population can grow
indefinitely due to
limited resources such
as light, water, and
nutrients and also due
to competitors and/or
predators.
Limiting Factors Examples:
Extrinsic
Biotic Density Dependent
Abiotic Density Independent

Intrinsic
Social Hierarchy
Gender changing

Density-independent population
controls affect a population's size
regardless of its density. These are
abiotic factors in the community.

Density-dependent factors or
population controls have a greater
affect on the population as its
density increases. Infectious
disease is an example of density-
dependent population control.
Biotic Potential v. Environmental Resistance
(Logistic Population Growth)

Carrying capacity (K)


Environmental is determined by biotic
resistance potential and environmental
resistance.
Carrying capacity (K)
(K) is is the number of a
Population size (N)

species individuals that can


be sustained indefinitely in a
specific space.
Biotic
potential As a population reaches its
carrying capacity, its
Exponential growth rate will decrease
growth because resources
become more scarce.

Time (t)
Natural Population
Curves

Population sizes may stay


about the same, suddenly
increase and then decrease,
vary in regular cycles, or
change erratically.

Four general types of


population fluctuations in
nature are (1) stable, (2) Fig. 9-7 p. 168
irruptive, (3) cyclic, and (4)
irregular. Some species have a fairly stable population size
That may occasionally irrupt to a high peak and then
A stable population fluctuates crash to below carrying capacity. This is
slightly above and below characteristic of short-lived, rapidly reproducing
carrying capacity and is species.
characteristic of many
species Living under fairly Cyclic fluctuations occur over a regular time period,
constant environmental generally a multiple year cycle.
conditions.
Irregular behavior is poorly understood. Some
scientists attribute irregular behavior to chaos in the
system; others disagree.
Exponential and Logistic Growth
The Role of Predation in Controlling Population Size
Interactions between
predators and their prey
change in cycles and appear
to be caused by species
interactions, but other factors
may be involved.

The hypothesis of top-down


control of prey by predators
may not be the only
explanation for the boom-
and-bust cycles seen in these Fig. 9-8 p. 168
populations. This may also be
related to the food supply of
prey.
These are not mutually exclusive
The bottom-up control hypotheses; more probably have
hypothesis states that plants interaction between predation and
are consumed too rapidly by food supplies.
prey for replacement to keep
up. This may lead to a crash
of herbivores, and that may
lead to a crash of higher
predators.
Population dispersion clumping dispersion the
most common dispersion
pattern for populations. In
this type of dispersion,
individuals "flock together.

uniform dispersion a type of


population dispersion in
which the members of the
population are uniformly
spaced throughout their
geographic region.
Most species live in clumps or groups; reasons may
include: random dispersion a type of
population dispersion in
Availability of resources varies from place to place. which the position of each
individual is not determined
Living in groups offers better protection from or influenced by the other
predators. members of the population.
Some predator species live in packs to better have a
chance to get a meal.

Temporary groups may form for mating and caring


for young.

Uniform pattern distribution may occur where a


resource, such as water, is scarce.
Reproductive Patterns and Survival
Some species reproduce without having sex, and others reproduce by having
sex.

Asexual reproduction does not utilize sex; each cell can divide and produce two
identical cells that are replicas of the original cell.

Sexual reproduction occurs when gametes from each parent combine to


produce offspring with a combination of genetic traits from each parent.

Three disadvantages to sexual reproduction:


Males do not give birth; females have to produce twice the offspring to
maintain the same number of young as an asexual organism.

Chance of genetic errors/defects increase during splitting and


recombination.

Courtship/mating consume energy and time, transmit disease, and


inflict injury on males in some cases

Two important advantages are genetic diversity for survival of species in


the face of changes in environment and males may help with food
gathering and/or rearing of young.
Reproductive Patterns and Survival

Fig. 9-10 p. 170

Reproductive patterns can be classified into two fundamental reproductive


patterns: r-selected and K-selected species.

Availability of a suitable habitat for individuals of a population ultimately


determines the population size.
Reproductive Strategies

r-Selected species are opportunists and


reproduce when conditions are
favorable or when disturbance opens a
niche for invasion. Most species of this
type go through irregular and unstable
boom-and-bust cycles in population
size.

K-selected species generally follow a


logistic growth curve. Many of the
larger species with long generation
times and a low reproductive rate are
prone to extinction.
Survivorship Curves
Populations of different
species vary in how long
individual members typically
live.

A survivorship curve is one


way to represent age
structure of a population.

Three generalized types of


survivorship curves are: late
loss, early loss, and constant
loss.

A life table shows the


numbers of individuals at
each age on a survivorship
Fig. 9-11 p. 171 curve.

Insurance companies use life


tables to determine the cost
of insurance policies.