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Classifying Rocks

Texture
The Size and Shape of
the rocks grains
Grains-particles of
minerals or other rocks
Some rocks have no
visible grain too.
Mineral Composition
Geologist must take a
thin sliver of rock to
determine what
minerals it is made of
Origin
Determining where or
how it is made
Three Types
Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic
Igneous Rocks

Igneous rocks are formed by volcanic activity.


They are classified further by their origin,
texture, and mineral composition.
Origins of Igneous Rocks
Extrusive Rocks: Intrusive Rock:
These rocks are formed These rocks form
above the ground when underground
lava flows or explodes from magma.
from a volcano.

Granite

Basalt

Obsidian Gabbro
Texture of Igneous Rocks
Texture depends on the size and shape of the crystals
when the rock forms. This is due to the cooling rate
of the rocks.
Rapid Cooling: Slow Cooling:
Rapid cooling produces fine grains Slow cooling produces coarse grains
and small crystals. with large crystals. This is
This is associated with extrusive associated with intrusive rocks.
rocks.
Diorite

Andesite
Obsidian
Obsidian is formed above ground and cools
quickly, but it forms no crystals and has a
glassy texture.
Porphyritic Texture
Rocks that experienced Finally the forming rock
a complex cooling cools quickly (because
history heat is not as intense in
First the rock is cooling the higher layers) so
slowly deep smaller crystals form
underground among larger crystals
Earth movement causes
this forming rock to
move up in the rock
layers
Composition of Magma
Magma is a mix of rock
gases and mineral
crystals.
Elements found in
magma are
Oxygen
Silicon
Aluminum/Iron
Magnesium/Calcium/
Potassium and Sodium
Mineral Composite of Igneous Rocks
Mafic: Felsic:
Igneous rocks with low Igneous rocks high in silica
amounts of silica usually usually appear light in
produce dark colored color. Contain quartz
rocks. Contain iron and feldspar orthoclase and
magnesium plagioclase, plagioclase
biotite, amphibole Pumice
, pyroxene &
olivine

Peridotite
Mineral Composite of Igneous Rock
Intermediate: Ultramafic
Moderate amounts of Low silica but very high
biotite, amphibole and levels of iron and
pyroxene magnesium
Between Felsic and Mafic Formed by fractional
crystallization of olivine
Diorite

and pyroxene
Dunite
How Rocks Melt
Partial melting
Different minerals have
different melting points

Fractional Crystallization
Because minerals melt at
different times it is only
logical that minerals cool
at different rates
Bowens Reaction Series
Two Main patterns of
mineral crystallization
and cooling magma
relationship
Pattern one
Continuous, gradual
change in feldspar group
Pattern two
Abrupt change of mineral
type in the iron-
magnesium group
Ore Deposits
Pegmatites
Large grained
Contains rare elements
Lithium
Beryllium

Kimerlites
Ultramafic
Formed under high
pressure
Contains Diamonds
Uses of Igneous Rocks
For thousands of years people have used
igneous rocks for building and tools.

Granite is still used today for


constructing buildings.
Obsidian has been used for tool
making by Native Americans. Some
Pumice is used for cleaning and
surgeons use obsidian instead of
for removing calluses from feet.
steel in their scalpels today because
they cut better and leave a thinner
scar.