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LECTURE 6: EMN511: Engineering Management

W/F 2:30PM-4:00PM

MOTIVATING Instructor: Mr. Roman M. Richard


MOTIVATING
Productivity has always been a serious concern of the
management of firms. If it improves, it means greater chances
for the company to grow and be more stable. One reason why
the Philippine economy cannot move steadily forward is our
record of low productivity for so many years.
Higher productivity, however is not a result of chance. It
happens because of the harder, more efficient, and more
intelligent work made by the employees. To be willing partners,
however, there quirement is for them to be properly motivated.
WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Motivating refers to the act of giving employees reasons or
incentives to work to achieve organizational objectives.
Motivation refers to the process of activating behavior,
sustaining it, and directing it toward a particular goal.
Three stages:
1. Activating
2. Sustaining
3. Directing
FACTORS CONTRIBUTING
TO MOTIVATION
The following are influencing factors to a persons desire to do
his job well.
1. Willingness to do a job. People who like what they are doing
are highly motivated to produce the expected output.
2. Self-confidence in carrying out a task. When employees feel
that they have the required skill and training to perform a
task, the more motivated they become.
3. Needs satisfaction. People will do their jobs well if they feel
that by doing so, their needs will be satisfied.
THEORIES OF
MOTIVATION
The following are the most influencing theories:
1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory
2. Herzbergs two-factor theory
3. Expectancy theory
4. Goal setting theory
MASLOWS HIERARCHY
OF NEEDS THEORY
Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, theorized that human beings
have five basic needs which are: physiological, security, social,
esteem, and self-actualization. These needs are hierarchical,
which means, one need will have to be satisfied first before the
other need.
MASLOWS HIERARCHY
OF NEEDS THEORY
Physiological Needs
Those that are concerned with the biological needs like food, drink, rest, and sex falls under this category.
These needs take priority over the other needs.

Security Needs
After satisfying the physiological needs, people will seek to satisfy their safety needs, these needs include
freedom from harm coming from the elements or from other people, financial security which may be affected by
loss of job or breadwinner in the family, etc.

Social Needs
After satisfying his physiological and security needs, the employee will now strive to secure love, affection, and
the need to be accepted by peers.

Esteem Needs
The fourth level of needs is called esteem needs and they refer to the need for a positive self-image and self-
respect and the need to be respected by others.

Self-Actualization Needs
The fifth and the topmost level needs in the hierarchy are called self-actualization needs and involve realizing
our full potential as human beings and becoming al that we are able to be.
MASLOWS HIERARCHY
OF NEEDS THEORY
SELF ACTUALIZATION
NEEDS
Self-fulfillment

ESTEEM NEEDS
Status, Respect, Prestige

SOCIAL NEEDS
Friendship, Belongingness, Love

SECURITY NEEDS
Freedom from harm, financial security

PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS
Food, Water, Sleep, Sex, Body Elimination
HERZBERGS TWO-
FACTOR THEORY
The two-factor theory is the one developed by Frederick
Hertzberg indicating that a satisfied employee is motivated
from within to work harder and that a dissatisfied employee is
not self-motivated.

Herzberg identified two classes of factors associated with


employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
HERZBERGS TWO-
FACTOR THEORY
Job Satisfaction: Job Dissatisfaction:
Achievement Company Policy and
Administration
Recognition
Supervision
Work itself
Relationship with peers
Responsibility
Personal life
Advancement
Relationship with
Growth subordinates
If Herzbergs theory will be considered by the manager in motivating employees, he must do something to
eliminate the dissatisfiers and install satisfiers.Status
Security
EXPECTANCY THEORY
Expectancy theory is a motivation model based on the
assumption that an individual will work depending on his
perception of the probability on his expectations to happen.
Expectancy theory is based on the following assumptions:
A combination of forces within the individual and in the environment
determines behavior.
People make decisions about their own behavior and that of organizations.
People have different types of needs, goals, and desires.
People make choices among the alternative behaviors based on the extent to
which, they think a certain behavior will lead to a desired outcome.
EXPECTANCY THEORY

The theory poses the idea that motivation is determined by


expectancies and valences. Expectancy is a belief about the
likelihood or probability that a particular behavioral act(like
attending training sessions) will lead to a particular outcome
(like promotion). Valence is the value an individual places on
the expected outcomes or rewards.
GOAL SETTING THEORY
Goal setting refers to the process of improving performance
with objectives, deadlines or quality standard. When
individuals or groups are assigned specific goals, a clear
direction is provided and which later motivates them to achieve
these goals.
The goal setting model drawn by Edwin A. Locks and his
associates consists of the following components:
1. goal content
2. goal commitment
3. work behavior
4. feedback aspects
GOAL SETTING THEORY
Goal Content.
To be sufficient in content, goals must be challenging,
attainable, specific and measurable, time-bound, and relevant.
When goals are challenging, higher performance be expected.
The sales quotas imposed by companies to individual
members of their sales force indicate reliance of these
companies to the use of challenging goals. Goals must be
attainable if they are to be set. If they are not, then workers will
only be discouraged to perform, if at all.
GOAL SETTING THEORY
Goal Commitment
When individuals or groups are committed to the goals they
are supposed to achieve, there is a chance that they will be
able to achieve them.
GOAL SETTING THEORY
Work behavior
Goals influence behavior in terms of direction, effort,
persistence, and planning. When an individual is provided with
direction, performance is facilitated. In trying to attain goals that
are already indicated, the individual is provided with a direction
to exert more effort. The identification of goals provides a
reason for an individual to persist in his efforts until the goal is
attained.
GOAL SETTING THEORY
Feedback aspects
Feedback provides the individuals with a way of knowing how
far they have gone in achieving objectives. Feedback also
facilitates the introduction of corrective measures whenever
they are found to be necessary.
THE PROCESS OF
MOTIVATION
TECHNIQUES OF
MOTIVATION
Individual or groups of individuals may be motivated to perform
through the use of various techniques. These techniques may
be classified as follows:
1. motivation through job design
2. motivation through rewards
3. motivation through employee participation
4. other motivation techniques for the diverse work force
MOTIVATION THROUGH
JOB DESIGN
A person will be highly motivated to perform if he is assigned a
job he likes.
1. Fitting People to Jobs.
1. Realistic job previews
2. Job rotation
3. Limited Exposure

2. Fitting Jobs to People.


1. Job enlargement
2. Job Enrichment
MOTIVATION THROUGH
REWARDS
Rewards consist of material and psychological benefits to
employees for performing tasks in the workplace. Properly
administered reward systems can improve job performances
and satisfaction.
MOTIVATION THROUGH
REWARDS
Categories of Rewards
1. Extrinsic those that refer to payoffs granted to the
individual by another party. Examples are money, employee
Intrinsic benefits, promotions, recognition, status symbols,
praise, etc.
2. Intrinsic those which are internally experienced payoffs
which are self-granted. Examples as a sense of
accomplishment, self-esteem and self-actualization.
Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards coincide with needs spelled out
the beginning of the chapter.
MOTIVATION THROUGH
REWARDS
Management of Extrinsic Rewards. To motivate job
performance effectively, extrinsic rewards must be properly
managed in line with the following:
1. it must satisfy individual needs;
2. the employees must believe effort will lead to reward;
3. rewards must be equitable;
4. rewards must be linked to performance
MOTIVATION THROUGH
EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION
When employees participate in deciding various aspects of their
jobs, the personal involvement, oftentimes, is carried up to a point
where the task is completed. The specific activities identified
where employees may participate are:
1. Setting goals
2. Making decisions
3. Solving problems
4. designing and implementing organizational changes
The more popular approaches to participation include the
following:
1. quality control circles
2. self-managed teams
QUALITY CONTROL
CIRCLES
A method of direct employee participation is the quality control
circle(QCC). The objective of the QCC is to increase
productivity and quality of output.
The circle consists of a group of three to ten employees
usually doing related work, who meet at regular intervals to
identify problems and discuss their solutions. The circle
includes a leader such as a foremen, but rely on democratic
processes. The members are trained in various analysis
techniques by the coordinator.
The circle forwards its recommendations to management,
which in turn, makes decision on its adoption.
QUALITY CONTROL
CIRCLES
SELF-MANAGED TEAMS
When workers have reached a certain degree of discipline,
they may be ripe for forming self-managed teams. Also known
as autonomous work groups or high performance teams, self-
managed teams take on traditional managerial tasks as part of
their normal work routine.
The self-managed teams work on their own, turning out a
complete product or service and receiving minimal supervision
from managers who act more as facilitators than supervisors.
When a product or a service is produced by a group of
professionals or specialists, they might as well be formed as a
self-managed team to save on supervisory costs.
REQUISITES TO SUCCEED
EMPLOYEE PARTICIPATION
PROGRAM
1. A profit-sharing or gains haring plan
2. A long term employment relationship with good job security
3. A concerted effort to build and maintain group cohesiveness
4. Protection of the individual employees rights
OTHER MOTIVATION
TECHNIQUES
The advent of theories on individual differences and the
biological clock of human beings put pressure on the manger
to adapt other motivation techniques whenever applicable.
1. Flexible work schedules
2. Family support services
3. Sabbaticals
OTHER MOTIVATION
TECHNIQUES
Flexible Work Schedules.
There is an arrangement, called flextime, which allows employees to
determine their own arrival and departure times within specified limits. There
are certain benefits that are offered by the flexible work schedules, although
this is not applicable for all situations.

Family Support Services


Employees are oftentimes burdened by family obligations like caring for
children. Progressive companies provide day care facilities for children of
employees.

Sabbaticals.
A sabbatical leave is one given to an employee after a certain number of
years of service. The employee is allowed to go on leave for two months to
one year with pay to give him for family, recreations, and travel. It is
expected that when the employee returns for work, his motivation is
improved.