Role of Biotechnology on Plant

November 25, 2015

Plant Biotechnology
 Manipulating plants for the benefit of mankind
 A precise process to improve plants.

Plant biotechnology is about:
More Food
Better Food
Better environment

November 25, 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 2

Why plant breeding needs plant biotechnology? Breeding:  Application of genetics principles for improvement  Combining desirable traits from different varieties of plants to produce plants of superior quality. and introduction of new genes. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 3 .  Systematic procedures used to improve trait phenotypes by crossing and selection. directed manipulation of the genotype at the DNA sequence level. November 25.

Planting material is the most important input in agriculture An improved cultivar is the most economic and least laborious input for crop cultivation November 25. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 4 . Importance of plant breeding? Agriculture is the biggest industrial sector in the world Increases in yield are derived both from improved varieties and from improved management. It suggests about a 50-50 of crop yield split between genetic gain and gain attributed to management.

2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 5 .Primary steps in plant breeding  Develop a Vision  Find or Create Variability (Techniques)  Apply Selection Pressure  Evaluate and Select (Screen)  Commercialize November 25.

factors.5% a year  Sustainability Environment problems due to natural resource over exploitation  Globalization World wide competition among the largest multinational as global business entity and national companies of agriculture input production such as seed materials  Global warming Changing climate may change in quality and quantity of biotic and a- biotic25. November 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 6 .5% a year. Grain production increases around 0. Challenges of plant breeding early in 21th century  Human population growth Human population is growing faster than increases in food production. while human population growth is about 1.

overcome the challenges 2. Meeting the challenges Use all knowledge and tools that can contribute to : 1. Maintain long term productivity and sustainability Molecular genetics. 2015 Molecular Pemuliaanphysiology Tanaman 2015 7 . Genomics. Proteomics. Bioinformatics November 25. Molecular biology.

Selected milestones in plant breeding 9000 BC First evidence of plant domestication in the hills above the Tigris river 1694 Camerarius first to demonstrate sex in (monoecious) plants and suggested crossing as a method to obtain new plant types 1714 Mather observed natural crossing in maize 1761-1766 Kohlreuter demonstrated that hybrid offspring received traits from both parents and were intermediate in most traits. first scientific hybrid in tobacco 1866 Mendel: Experiments in plant hybridization 1900 Mendel’s laws of heredity rediscovered 1944 Avery. McCarty discovered DNA is hereditary material 1953 Watson. Crick. Cohen. Wilkins proposed a model for DNA structure 1970 Borlaug received Nobel Prize for the Green Revolution Berg. and Boyer introduced the recombinant DNA technology 1994 ‘FlavrSavr’ tomato developed as first GMO 1995 Bt-corn developed . MacLeod.

Domestication traditional/conventional breeding Maize germplasm Ancient maize---Teosinte ear (Zea mays ssp mexicana) on left November 25. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 9 .

2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 10 .Classical/conventional plant breeding modern crop improvement November 25.

2015 Time Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 11 . Plant Breeding Technologies & Crop Improvement (A Continuum) Bioinformatics Proteomics Genomics Analytical Technologies Transgenic Traits Germplasm Improvement Biotech/Genetic Engineering ( = higher yields) Winter Nurseries Computer Technologies Plot Mechanization Quantitative Genetics Statistics Pedigree Breeding Hybridization Open Pollinated Selection November 25.

2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 12 . Selection breeding In vitro breeding methods methods Plant Breeding in the 21th Century Molecular breeding Transgenic methods breeding methods November 25.

Conventional breeding methods  Selection  Hybridization  Mutagenesis  Polyploidy  Heterosis November 25. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 13 .

Selection breeding methods The oldest method for plant improvement  Mass selection  Bulk breeding method  Single-seed descent  Pedigree breeding November 25. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 14 .

Micro-propagation November 25. In vitro breeding 1.In vitro selection 4. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 15 .Somatic Hybridization 5.Haploid and double breeding 3.Somaclonal variation 2.

Screening methods 4. Transformation methods 3.Gene construct methods 2. Transgenic breeding 1.Evaluation methods November 25. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 16 .

Marker assisted breeding methods November 25.Marker development methods 2. Molecular breeding 1. Quantitative trait loci 3. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 17 .

2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 18 . Comparing Genetic Modification Techniques Selective Breeding Mutation breeding Transgenic breeding Whole organism Molecule Molecule Level Thousands of genes Unknown Single gene Precision Genetic change poorly Genetic change poorly Gene function Certainty characterized characterized well understood Limits Between species Not applicable No limitations and genera November 25.

a single = gene may be added to (transfers) the strand. Traditional plant breeding Traditional donor Commercial variety New variety DNA is a strand of genes. Desired gene Transgenic breeding Desired gene Commercial variety New variety Using plant (only desired gene is followed) biotechnology. Traditional plant breeding X = combines many genes at Desired Gene (crosses) once. Desired gene November 25. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 19 . (many genes are transferred) much like a strand of pearls.

Releasing 1. Marker development technique November 25. Marker development technique 3. Seed production 1. Evaluation 1. Micropropagation technique 2. In vitro selection technique 2. Somaclonal technique 2. Double haploid technique 3. Marker development technique 4. Breeding steps New tools 1. Selection 1. 2015 Pemuliaan Tanaman 2015 20 . Protoplast fusion technique 3. New tools in plant breeding No. Transformation technique 2. Creating variability 1. Marker development technique 5.

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