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THE ART OF

QUESTIONING
OBJECTIVES:

a. List at least six principles of good questioning;


b. Define the six level of cognitive thinking according to
bloom;
c. Write at least three questions (in his/her own discipline) at
each of the six levels of questioning under the blooms
classification system;
d. Justify the categorization of each question developed in
specific level;
e. Create a 10-minute micro lesson during which minimum
of five different questions, two of which must be above
the comprehension level, will be asked; and
f. Using the 10-minute micro lesson, analyze the questions
used.
INTRODUCTION
A question is any sentence which has an interrogative
form or function. In classroom settings, teacher questions are
considered as instructional cues or stimuli that convey to
students the content elements to be learned and directions for
what they are to do and how they are to do it. This calls for the
teachers careful planning and crafting of questions,
Questions should play a central role in the learning process.
Because of this, we need to carefully plan our questions in order
to guide the students toward further investigation and a deeper
understanding of the concepts being stressed. In other words,
we need to teach them how to think critically, logically, and
creatively by exposing them to a culture of thinking through our
good questioning.
PURPOSES OF QUESTIONING

Specifically, why do teachers ask questions? Here are some of the reason:

1. To interest, engage and challenge the learners;


2. To check on prior knowledge;
3. To stimulate recall and use of existing knowledge and
experience in order to create new understanding and meaning;
4. To focus thinking on key concepts and issues;
5. To extend learners thinking from the concrete and factual to
the analytical and evaluative;
6. To lead learners through a planned sequence which
progressively establishes key understandings;
7. To promote reasoning, problem solving, evaluation
and the formulation on hypotheses;
8. To promote learners thinking about the way they
have learned;
9. Develop critical thinking skills and inquiring attitudes
and reinforce student understanding;
10. Provide feedback and enliven classroom discussion;
11. Nurture insights by exposing new relationships;
12. Assess achievement of instructional goals and
objectives; and
13. Stimulate students to pursue knowledge on their
own.
Series of steps that students will follow

Revising the response( based on


teacher probing or other feedback)

Generating an overt response

Generating a covert response (i. e, formulating a response


ones mind)

Deciphering the meaning of the question

? Attending to the question


PRINCIPLES OF QUESTIONING

1.Distribute questions so that all, including non-volunteers, are


involved.
2.Balance factual and thought-provoking questions.
3.Ask both simple and exacting questions, so that the poorer
students may participate and the brighter students may be
extended.
4.Encourage lengthy responses and sustained answers.
5.Stimulate critical thinking by asking: to what extent?
how? under what circumstances? why?
compare (or contrast)..
6. Use the overhead technique: 1) questions, 2) pause 3) name.
7.Ensure audibility, then refuse to repeat questions or answers
(in large classes always repeat questions and answers.
8. If a student asks a question, dont answer it until youve asked the
class, how would you answer that question?
9.Personalize questions (pretend you arewhat would you do?)
10.Suggest partnership by inquiring, how can we.?
Levels of questioning
BLOOMS TAXONOMY COGNITIVE DOMAIN

SYNTHESIS/CREATING

EVALUATION

ANALYSIS

APPLICATION

COMPREHENSION

KNOWLEDGE
6.SYNTHESIS: requires the student to find a solution to a
problem through the use of original, creative thinking.

Examples:
* Design a sand table so that you can study different kinds of erosion
* offer two proposals to solving the crowding on our
schools halls at lunch.
* Propose a plan for getting others in class to be quiet when
someone else is talking.

5. EVALUTION: requires the students to make an assessment of


good or not so good according to some standards.

Examples:
* Indicate in what ways this is a beautiful poem.
* Appraise the speechs effective based upon the class criteria.
4. ANALYSIS: requires the student to solve a problem through
the systematic examination of facts or information.

Examples: Study pictures


* what features of the land allow cultivation.
* which vehicles would most likely be used to travel?
* do the above answers tell you what kind of occupation most people
living here would you have? Why?

3. APPLICATION: requires the student to solve or explain a


problem by applying what he or she has learned to other
situations and learning tasks.

Examples:
* looking at the map, state the possible locations for the cultivation
of wheat.
* Choose from the array of watercolors and paint a picture of a rock.
* How would you get in contact with the person who was supposed
to meet you?
2. COMPREHENSION: requires the student to think on low level
such that the knowledge can be reproduced or communicated
without a verbatim repetition.
Examples:
* what does singing the blues imply?
* which term does not belong in this sentence?
* A lion is to pride as ______ is to flock.
* Explain why paul is a developing character in the story.

1.KNOWLEDGE: requires that the student recognize or recall


information.
Examples:
* what is the main idea in_________?
* what are the characteristics of________?
*how is _________ related to __________?
TYPES OF QUESTIONING

Different types of questions are recognizable based on the intensions of


the questions and the nature of the anticipated answers.

1.Factual questions are used to get information from the students and often
test rote memory.
2.Clarification questions intend to provide clarity to both students and
teachers. Such questions have important clueing effects and help students
to revisit their earlier statements with alternative perspectives,
3.Broadining or extension questions enlarge the existing theme.
explore implications of the response and can be useful in opening up
further possibilities such questions can be used to assess additional
knowledge of the students,
4. Justifying questions probe for assumptions and explore reasons for
particular answer. The questions require significant comprehension
and reasoning skills on the part of the students.

5. Hypothetical questions are used to explore students understanding of


complex situations beyond the scope of a particular encounter by creating
hypothetical scenarios. Hypothetical questions often come in handy during
the latter part of teacher-student interactions when the basic facts and
concepts are already established.

6.Questions about questions probe for reason for the question that students
teachers. This allows the students to verbalize their reasoning and
understanding of the events leading to their own questions.
7. Redirect questions address the same question to several question and
distribute responsibility. The benefit of such questions include generation
of a wider variety of responses and allowing students to evaluate each
others contributions. This technique shifts the focus from teacher-student
interactions to students-students interactions.
Questioning strategies and techniques

Caram and davis (2005), offered the following questioning strategies


for successful questioning by the teacher.

1. Create a classroom culture open to dialogue.

2. Use both preplanned and emerging questions.

3. Select an appropriate level of questioning based on the


students needs.

4. Avoid tricky questions that require only yes or no answer.

5. Phrase questions carefully, concisely, and clearly.


6. Address questions to the group or to individuals, randomly.

7. Use sufficient time

8. Respond to answer given by students.

9. Deliberately frame questions to promote students interest.

10. Use questions to identify learning objectives for follow-up self-study.


Critiquing your questioning techniques

Once should be aware of the level and type of questions he/she asks
during atypical lesson. He/she should also be able to assess and eventually
elevate the level and type of questions he/she uses to engage students for
deeper understanding. The following technique will be of help.

PROCEDURE:

1.To assess the types of questions asked a video or audio-tape recording of a


class needs to be made.
2.As soon as possible after the class is over, which and/or listen to the
recording and choose a ten-minute segment for analysis.
3.Write down in its entirely each questions that you ask during this ten-minute
segment: i.e., write out every word from the beginning of the question up
to the point at which you cease speaking and wait for a response.
4. As you go over these questions, consider the following:
a. what effects might your phrasing have had on the students thinking
about the question?
b. How could you improve the wording of these questions?
5. Next focus your attention on the amount and complexity of thinking
required for your students to respond (silently or loud ) to each
question.
6. Now, classify your questions using the Bloom Taxonomy categories.
7. Do this type of analysis periodically throughout the year to assess your
progress.
a. Into which category do most of your questions fall?
b. How do your students respond to your question?
c. what were your goals for this class or lesson?
would better facilities the achievement of the goals stated in 6?
Thank you!!!
Prepared by:

CLAUDIA C. LORENZO
JONATHAN E. ALCIBOR