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Particle Acceleration

Tracking the particle as we follow it path:

Particle VP@time t V ( x, y, z, t )
Note: V(x,y,z,t) is the velocity field of the
t+dt entire flow, not the velocity of a particle.
As the particle moves, its velocity changes to
VP@time t dt V ( x dx, y dy, z dz, t dt )

The acceleration of a particle (substantial acceleration) is given by

dVP V V dxP V dyP V dzP
dt t x dt y dt z dt
V V V V dxP dy dz
u v w . where u , v P , w P
t x y z dt dt dt
Physical Interpretation
aP u v w
Dt t x y z

Total acceleration Local Convective acceleration

of a particle acceleration

Unsteady flow Steady flow

velocity velocity

time x
An incompressible, inviscid flow past a circular cylinder of diameter d is
shown below. The flow variation along the approaching stagnation streamline
(A-B) can be expressed as:
R2 1
V ( x, y 0) u( x )i , where u(x) U O (1 2 ) 1 2
x x
y 1

u( x ) 0.5


R=1 m 5 4 3 2 1 0

UO=1 m/s Along A-B streamline, the velocity drops very fast as the particle
approaches the cylinder. At the surface of the cylinder, the velocity is
zero (stagnation point) and the surface pressure is a maximum.
Example (cont.)
Determine the acceleration experienced by a particle as it flows along the
stagnation streamline.

a u 0 0, since v w 0 along the stagnation streamline.
Dt t x
u u 1 2
Therefore, a x u , a y a z 0, a x (1 2 )( 3 ) for steady state flow
t x x x

The particle slows down due to the
strong deceleration as it approaches the
a( x ) 0.2 cylinder.
The maximum deceleration occurs at
x=-1.29R=-1.29 m with a magnitude of
0.4 0.4
5 4 3 2 1 0
5 x 1
Example (cont.)
Determine the pressure distribution along the streamline using Bernoullis
equation. Also determine the stagnation pressure at the stagnation point.
P(x) u 2 ( x ) P U O2
Bernoulli's equation:
2 2

1 1
P( x ) Patm (U u ( x )) 1 1 2 2

2 2 x 2 x
P( x ) Patm 1
P( x ) 2
The pressure increases as the particle
approaches the stagnation point.
0.4 It reaches the maximum value of 0.5,
P ( x ) that is Pstag-P=(1/2)UO2 as u(x)0
near the stagnation point.

5 4 3 2 1
Momentum Conservation
From Newton' s second law : Force (mass)(acce leration)
Consider a small element xyz as shown below.
The element experiences an acceleration
m ( x y z ) u v w
Dt t x y z
y as it is under the action of various forces:
normal stresses, shear stresses, and gravitational force.

yx y x z

xx y z xx

xx x y z
yx x z
Momentum Balance (cont.)
Net force acting along the x-direction:
xx yx zx
x y z x y z x y z g x x y z
x x x

Normal stress Shear stresses (note: zx: shear stress Body force
acting on surfaces perpendicular to
the z-axis, not shown in previous

The differential momentum equation along the x-direction is

xx yx zx u u u u
gx u v w
x x x t x y z
similar equations can be derived along the y & z directions
Eulers Equations

For an inviscid flow, the shear stresses are zero and the normal stresses
are simply the pressure: 0 for all shear stresses, xx yy zz P
P u u u u
gx u v w
x t x y z
Similar equations for y & z directions can be derived
P v v v v
gy u v w
y t x y z
P w w w w
gz u v w
z t x y z

Note: Integration of the Eulers equations along a streamline will give rise to the
Bernoullis equation.
Navier and Stokes Equations
For a viscous flow, the relationships between the normal/shear stresses and the
rate of deformation (velocity field variation) can be determined by making a
simple assumption. That is, the stresses are linearly related to the rate of
deformation (Newtonian fluid). (see chapter 5-4.3) The proportional constant for
the relation is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (m). Based on this, Navier and
Stokes derived the famous Navier-Stokes equations:

u u u u P 2u 2u 2u
u v w gx m 2 2 2
t x y z x x y z
v v v v P 2v 2v 2v
u v w gy m 2 2 2
t x y z y x y z
w w w w P 2w 2w 2w
u v w gz m 2 2 2
t x y z z x y z