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WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

Water Resources Project Cycle

Water Resources Project Cycle is consist of the


elements of a River Basin Management, i.e.:
Master Planning
Feasibility study
Engineering Design
Construction
Operation & Maintenance
Rehabilitation
Master planning is called River Basin Planning
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
Project activities (cycle) in River Basin Management

Master
Plan

inventory Identifi Reconna- Pre- Feasibility Design Construc-


cation issance feasibility tion

Operation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation


WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle

Terms used to describe the stages in planning


are subject to variations in use and
interpretation, but in general are summarised
below:
Inventories by region or river basin of potential
schemes for development, determine on aerial
photography at reconnaissance level, in term of land
and water availability and access;
Identification of projects by name, during or after the
inventories, and notification of interest parties;
Reconnaissance to clarify aspects not resolved
during the inventory, and classification to determine
scope of further studies, if any;
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
Pre-feasibility study and screening to compare outlines or
types of scheme which may fulfill the objectives to compare
approximate cost and benefits, to select schemes for further
study, and to determine the requirements for survey and
investigations;
Feasibility study to establish the need, to define precisely the
scheme to meet the need, recommend a program for
implementation, draw attention to possible problems, calculate
capital and running costs and benefits, and indicate whether
the project is technically and economically viable;
Design preliminary designs and/or detailed final designs,
contract documents, and cost estimates;
Construction implementation of development project or
hydraulics infrastructure.
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle

A Master Plan for setting priority of a series of names schemes


to develop the water resources of regional unit (usually a river
basin, but sometimes also an administrative unit). It may be
prepared at any stage of the study, but it usually done as part of,
and as a product of, pre feasibility studies.
A project maybe subject to all or only a few of these stages,
depending upon the importance of the investment and the
experience already available of the farming on the site, in case of an
agricultural project. Furthermore the boundaries between the
planning stages may be varied:
A combine reconnaissance stage may include an inventory
and identification of project; and detailed reconnaissance may
overlap the scope of pre-feasibility study;
A detailed feasibility study may include some design works.
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle

Operation
Operation Manual, Operation Rules

Maintenance
Routine
Special Maintenance

Rehabilitation
Accumulation of Maintenance Problem
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
Field of Activities for each Stage:
Topography
Land Classification
Agriculture/Resources/Products marketing
Hydrology
Hydrogeology
Geology and Soil Mechanics
Engineering Designs
Costs
Benefits
Economic & Financial Analysis
Master-planning
W R Project Planning Activities..
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
Field of Activities for Water Resources Inventory
Topography:
Maps 1: 250.000, 50 m contour interval
Main watersheds, rivers, roads, towns
Land Classification, is done by reviewing the following data:
Satellite Imagery 1: 1,000,000 or larger
Air photography 1:120,000 or larger
Land use maps
Previous Reports on Identifying land Systems
Agriculture/Resources/Products marketing, by knowing local crops
and general policies for:
Irrigated crops
Rain-fed crops
Multiple crops
Livestock
Forestry
Aquaculture
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle

Hydrology
Assemble & Collate Data
Mean rainfall maps
Mean & minimum recorded flows for water availability
Identify main water source.
Note tendency for swamps & floods
Hydrogeology
Assemble & collate data on existing groundwater use
Identify regions having groundwater potential
Geology and Soil Mechanics
No Activities yet
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
Engineering Designs
Outline main water sources
Irrigable land and other demand areas
Outline areas of swamps and periodic inundation
Costs
No Activity yet
Benefits
Qualitative Benefits
Economic & Financial Analysis
No activity yet
Master-planning, assemble information on:
Population
Food and other needs
Water needs
Infrastructures
Qualitative assessment of needs & potential for development and
adequacy of water resources
WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
River Basin Planning is the planning concept like for a city or
regional, which is called master planning.
Master plan must be revised periodically. It becomes obsolete
if the assumptions regarding the future are not realized. The
changes in assumptions are due to changes in technology,
economic development, and public attitude.

See Bakun Dam


WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING
Water Resources Project Cycle
Studies related to Water Resources:
Miri-Bintulu Regional Planning Study (1977)
Kuching Urban and Regional Master Plan Study (1974)
Bintulu Regional Master Plan Study (1977)
Prefeasibility Study for Limbang Valley River Basin (1979)
Master Plan for Power System Development (1980)
Feasibility Report Samarahan River Basin Development (1981)
National Water Resources Study (1982)
Bakun Hydro-Electric Project Feasibility Report (1983)
Master Plan Study for Sewerage and Drainage System for Bintulu and
its Environs (1984)
Miri Water Supply Master Plan (1984)
Feasibility Study for the Master Plan for Rural Water Supply Coastal
Region of Sarawak (1986)
Malaysian Rural Water Supply Sarawak Research Project (1989)
Master Plan Study for Coastal and Riverine Transport in Sarawak
(1990)
Sarawak Water Resources Study Projects (1995)
EXAMPLES OF PROJECT
Flood Mitigation
SG. MAONG HILIR HOUSING SCHEME, KUCHING
26 JANUARY 2004
KAMPONG SINAR BUDI, YEAR 2004
Bau Police Station
KUCHING CITY 2004 FLOOD EXTENT
Kuching City
Flood Mitigation Proposal
Proposed Flood Bypass Channel
Kuching
Phase 1: Project Components
8.0 km long 250 m base width earth channel and
bund;
500 m reserve;
Two bridges;
250 m wide tidal gates;
3 bays 25 m wide gated barrage with shiplock &
overhead bridge;
A rockfill river closure cum causeway;
11 km 2-lane single carriageway tar-sealed access
road;
Telemetric system & ancillary buildings;
Miscellaneous structures.
Low-level Bridge & 250m bw Flood Diversion
Tidal Gate Channel (500m reserve)

Low-level
Bridge

Access
Road/Bund
Earth Bund

Barrage/Shiplock/
Rockfill Causeway
Overhead Bridge
Phase 2 - Project Components
Kiri detention storage u/s of Kpg. Landeh.
23m high with 2 nos. 3.1m dia. pipe outlet, storage vol.
284 million m3.
100m crest length with spillway.

Kanan detention storage u/s of Buan Bidi.


12m high with 2 nos. 3.1m dia. pipe outlet, storage vol.
84 million m3.
50m crest length with spillway.

5 km of 7 m wide gravel access road.


Flooding in Sibu Town
February 2001
Flooding in Sibu Town
December 2007
Sibu Town
Drainage
Masterplan
Recommended Mitigation Proposal

The Recommended Flood Mitigation Masterplan for Sibu


town consists of:-
Close-loop bunding of Sibu town with approx. 20 km of raised
road / earth bund / low R.C parapet wall
11 nos. pumping stations with pumping capacity varies from 3
units x 3m3/s to 6 units x 3m3/s
Detention ponds of about 1 acre each at individual pumping
stations
Additional cut-off drains and trunk drains
Rajang Riverwall and protection of Taman Sentosa can be done
at later phase
Elevated Roadways to form Flood Levees
Sibu
Phase 1 Proposal
Phase 1 works consist of:

Raising up & upgrading of


about 2.3km length Upper
Lanang Road

Upgrading of about 1.8km


length existing roadside
drain (LHS) to 1.2m wide
R.C covered drain cum
walkway

Upgrading of about 2.1km


length of existing roadside
drain (RHS) to 2.5m wide
R.C covered drain cum
walkway

3 nos. Tidal Control Gates

1 no. pumping station


Miri City is sited at the mouth of Sg Miri

Catchment area of Sg Miri is 582 km2

adjacent to Btg Baram

worst flooding recorded in 1963 with major floodings in


1967, 1973, 1981, 1992, 1993 & 1994

floodings are closely associated with floodings along Btg


Baram
Miri City Mitigation Proposal

construction of a flood protection


embankment along the left bank of Sg Miri
between Lutong Bridge and Kpg Pujut

construction of a 400 metre wide natural


flood bypass/spillway channel downstream
of Pujut Lopeng Bridge

pumping stations along embankment to


alleviate internal drainage problem
Sg Maong River Improvement Works
largest sub catchment of Sg Sarawak

catchment area of 4,060 ha

two tributaries in the south eastern part of Kuching


City, Sg Maong Kiri, Sg Maong Kanan

population of 70,000 concentrated along Sg Maong


Kiri

major floodings are closely associated with


floodings along Sg Sarawak

flash floodings due to localized constraints in the


existing urban drainage system
Flooding in Sg Maong Catchment

Jalan Keretapi Jalan Stapok

Sky Garden, Jalan Stapok Jalan Keretapi


Mitigation Works

major floodings will likely be alleviated


with the implementation of the Kuching
City Flood Bypass project

urban drain improvement works are


implemented at various location like
the Bong Chin Estate to provide relief
from flash floodings
DID Drainage Schemes
over 57 drainage schemes completed
since the 1960s
total scheme areas of over 68,000
hectares
most sited in the coastal areas of
Sarawak
for coconut, cocoa, oil palm, fruit trees
and other crops
Drainage Infrastructures

tidal control gates to provide discharge in tidal


areas,
bunds, drains, creek closures & culverts for
flood protection and to improve land
drainage,
timber bridges & internal bunds for access

check gates, weirs, drainage controls to control


water levels
Asajaya Drainage Scheme

Area = 17,000 hectares


Scheme Development
Scheme area was previously a coastal mud flat/peat swamp
that was only accessible by riverine/coastal transport and
devoted to coconut cultivation with a population of about
19,000 (1980)

land drainage development started in the 1970s,

390 km of perimeter, internal and cutoff drains

290 km of perimeter and internal bunds

28 nos of lock gates / tidal control gates

38 nos of culverts

69 nos. of bridges

15 nos of living quarters


Sebangan Bajong Scheme
Sebangan

Asajaya Tebelu
Project
Area = 15,000 hectares

Sebuyau

Sebangan Bajong Project


Area = 15,000 Ha
Scheme Development
Scheme area was previously a coastal mud flat/peat swamp
that was only accessible by riverine/coastal transport and
devoted to tree crop cultivation with a population of about
15,000 (1990)

land drainage development started in 1989,

338 km of perimeter, internal and cutoff drains

236 km of perimeter and internal bunds

25 nos of lock gates / tidal control gates

13 nos of culverts

47 nos. of bailey / timber bridges

6.3 km of coastal protection works

20.4 km of farm access roads


Lock Gate Lock Gate

Creek Closure Construction Perimeter Bund/Drain Construction


Lock Gate Construction Lock Gate

Drain Construction Rock Revetment Work Construction


Tidal Control Gate Construction Bund with Rock Revetment Protection

Lock Gate
Irrigation Schemes

13 no. of irrigation schemes covering an


area of 2,350 hectares under DID
schemes are for double cropping of wet padi
cultivation
mainly for farmers cultivating wet padi on a
subsistence basis
Types of Irrigation Schemes

Pumping Schemes

Ponds/Gravity Feed Schemes

Diversion/Gravity Feed Schemes


Irrigation Infrastructures

Pumping Stations
Storage Ponds
Conveyance and Distribution Canals
Sluice Gates,
Weirs, Offtakes, Irrigation End Controls
Field canals
Wet Padi at Banting Irrigation Scheme Concrete Irrigation Canal

Check Gate and Diversion Box Sluice Gate at Water Storage Pond
Water Supply
Water Supply a key criteria for
quantifying living standard

In Sarawak, water supplies are


managed by a number of agencies

Kuching Water Board (KWB), Sibu


Water Board (SWB), LAKU, Jabatan
Kerja Raya (JKR)
Kuching Water Board (KWB)

Provides water supply to Kuching City


and its surrounding areas of 730 km2

Two major treatment plants at Batu


Kitang and Matang abstracting raw
water from Sg Sarawak
Batu Kitang Treatment Plant accounts for
more than 95% of the total water
production for Kuching City while the
Matang Treatment Plant accounts for the
remainder

Batu Kitang Plant has a capacity of about


423 MLD while the Matang Plant has about
9 MLD
Batu Kitang Water
Treatment Plant

Matang Water Trearment


Plant
Bengoh Dam

Sited in the upper catchment of Sg


Sarawak Kiri
Dam catchment area of 122 km2
Roller Compacted Concrete Dam with
height of 62.5 m
Storage volume of 144.1 million m3

Dam for the storage of raw water supply


for Batu Kitang Treatment Plant
Ensure adequate water supply for
Kuching areas up to year 2030
Bengoh Dam Model
Miri Water Supply

Water is supplied from Lambir Water Treatment


Plant with a capacity of 134 MLD

Raw water supply from Sg Liku (80 MLD),


interbasin transfer from Sg Bakong (160
MLD) to Sg Liku and from 17 nos of borewells
(20 MLD).
Raw Water Sources for Miri

Sg
Bakong
Intake

Sg Liku

One of the
borewells in
Miri
Water Supplies from JKR

Water supplies to areas outside of


Kuching, Sibu, Miri, Bintulu,
Limbang are managed by JKR

89 gazetted JKR water supply


authorities in Sarawak
Overall Scenarios

some 76.3% of the total population of


Sarawak are served by these agencies

100% of the urban population are


receiving treated water

only 54.4% of the rural population has


treated water supply. By 2010, the
Government aims to increase the
percentage of rural population with
treated water to 70%.
Hydro Power Generation

current power consumption of about 1,000 MW


for Sarawak

Potential hydro power capacity of producing in


excess of 30,000 MW in Sarawak

Potential dam sites all located in the interior


mountainous regions

Hugh potential for cheap, renewable and green


energy
Batang Ai Dam

Batang Ai Dam located at Lubok Antu District of


Sarawak is the first hydro power dam

Construction for the concrete-faced rockfill dam


started in 1982 with the river diversion work and
was completed in 1985

Has a height of 110 metres with a storage volume


of 750 million m3

has 4 turbines of 25 MW installed capacity each


Bakun Dam
largest in Malaysia

at 205 metres high, it is the tallest concrete face


rockfill dam in the world

catchment area of 14,750 km2

storage volume of 15.6 million m3

capacity of 2,400 MW

under construction and due for completion by 2011


Bakun Dam
Proposed Murum Dam

located at Sg Murum, a tributary of Batang Rajang


in the Belaga District some 50 km upstream of
the on going development of Bakun Dam

it is a 141 metres high roller compacted concrete


dam with a chute spillway

catchment area for the dam is 2,750 km2

storage volume of 12,000 million m3

power generation capacity of about 900 MW from 4


turbines

construction expected to start in the near future


Inland navigation
Inland navigation plays a very significant role
as a relatively cheap mode of transport in
moving goods and people linking many
isolated rural communities in the vast interior
of Sarawak.

About 95% of the entire inland navigation in


Malaysia is found in Sarawak.
Thank you
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