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Chapter 2

SIGNALS AND SPECTRA


Chapter Objectives:
Basic signal properties (dc, RMS, dBm, and power);
Fourier transform and spectra;
Linear systems and linear distortion;
Band limited signals and sampling;
Discrete Fourier Transform;
Bandwidth of signals.

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Properties of Signals & Noise
In communication systems, the received waveform is
usually categorized into two parts:

Signal: Noise:
The desired part containing The undesired part
the information.
Properties of waveforms include:
DC value, Phase spectrum,
Root-mean-square (rms) value, Power spectral density,
Normalized power, Bandwidth
Magnitude spectrum, ..ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Physically Realizable Waveforms
Physically realizable waveforms are practical
waveforms which can be measured in a laboratory.
These waveforms satisfy the following conditions
The waveform has significant nonzero values over a
composite time interval that is finite.
The spectrum of the waveform has significant values over a
composite frequency interval that is finite
The waveform is a continuous function of time
The waveform has a finite peak value
The waveform has only real values. That is, at any time, it
cannot have a complex value a+jb, where b is nonzero.

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Physically Realizable Waveforms
Mathematical Models that violate some or all of the conditions
listed above are often used.
One main reason is to simplify the mathematical analysis.
If we are careful with the mathematical model, the correct
result can be obtained when the answer is properly interpreted.

The Math model in this


example violates the
following rules:
1. Continuity
2. Finite duration

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Time Average Operator
Definition:
The time average operator is given by,

The operator is a linear operator,


the average of the sum of two quantities is the same
as the sum of their averages:

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Periodic Waveforms
Definition
A waveform w(t) is periodic with period T0 if,
w(t) = w(t + T0) for all t
where T0 is the smallest positive number that satisfies this relationship
E.g.: A sinusoidal waveform of frequency f0 = 1/T0 hertz is
periodic
Theorem:
If the waveform involved is periodic, the time average operator can be
reduced to

where T0 is the period of the waveform and a is an arbitrary real constant,


which may be taken to be zero.

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Dc Value
Definition:
The dc (direct current) value of a waveform w(t) is given
by its time average, w(t). Thus,

For a physical waveform, we are actually interested


in evaluating the dc value only over a finite interval
of interest, say, from t1 to t2, so that the dc value is

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Power

Definition.
Let v(t) denote the voltage across a set of circuit terminals,
and let i(t) denote the current into the terminal, as shown .
The instantaneous power (incremental work divided by
incremental time) associated with the circuit is given by:
p(t) = v(t)i(t)
the instantaneous power flows into the circuit when p(t) is
positive and flows out of the circuit when p(t) is negative.

The average power is


ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Evaluation of DC Value
A 120V , 60 Hz fluorescent lamp wired in a high power factor configuration.
Assume the voltage and current are both sinusoids and in phase ( unity
power factor)

DC Value of this waveform is:


Vdc v(t ) V cos 0t
1 T0 / 2

T0 T0 / 2
V cos 0t dt

0
Where,
0 2 / T0 , and
f 0 1 / T0 60 Hz
Similarly , I dc 0 ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Evaluation of Power
The instantaneous power is:
p(t ) V cos 0t I cos 0t
1 / 2 VI 1 2 cos 0t
The Average power is:
P 1 / 2 VI 1 2 cos 0t
T0

VI

T 0
2
1 2 cos 0t dt
2T0 2

VI

2 ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
RMS Value
Definition: The root-mean-square (rms) value
of w(t) is:

Theorem:
If a load is resistive (i.e., with unity power factor),
the average power is:

where R is the value of the resistive load.


ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Normalized Power

In the concept of normalized power, R is assumed to be 1,


although it may be another value in the actual circuit.
Another way of expressing this concept is to say that the
power is given on a per-ohm basis.
It can also be realized that the square root of the normalized
power is the rms value.
Definition. The average normalized power is

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Energy and Power Waveforms
Definition: w(t) is a power waveform if and
only if the normalized average power P is
finite and nonzero (i.e., 0 < P < ).
Definition. The total normalized energy is

Definition. w(t) is an energy waveform if and


only if the total normalized energy is finite and
nonzero (i.e., 0 < E < ).
ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Energy and Power Waveforms
If a waveform is classified as either one of these
types, it cannot be of the other type.
If w(t) has finite energy, the power averaged over
infinite time is zero, and
If the power (averaged over infinite time) is finite, the
energy if infinite.
However, mathematical functions can be found that
have both infinite energy and infinite power and,
consequently, cannot be classified into either of these
two categories. (w(t) = e-t).
Physically realizable waveforms are of the energy
type. We can find a finite power for these!!
ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Decibel
A base 10 logarithmic measure of power ratios.
The ratio of the power level at the output of a circuit
compared with that at the input is often specified by
the decibel gain instead of the actual ratio.
Decibel measure can be defined in 3 ways
1. Decibel Gain
2. Decibel signal-to-noise ratio
3. Mill watt Decibel or dBm
Definition: Decibel Gain
The decibel gain of a circuit is:

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Decibel Gain

If resistive loads are involved,

Definition of dB may be reduced to,

or

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Decibel signal-to-noise ratio
Definition. The decibel signal-to-noise ratio is:

Where, Signal Power (S) =

And, Noise Power (N) =

So, definition is equivalent to

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004


Decibel -mill watt reference (dBm).
Definition. The decibel power level with respect to 1 mW is:

= 30 + 10 log (Actual Power Level (watts)


Here the m in the dBm denotes a milliwatt reference.
When a 1-W reference level is used, the decibel level is
denoted dBW;
when a 1-kW reference level is used, the decibel level is
denoted dBk.
E.g.: If an antenna receives a signal power of 0.3W, what is the
received power level in dBm?
dBm = 30 + 10xlog(0.3) = 30 + 10x(-0.523)3 = 24.77 dBm
ELCT 332 - Fall 2004
Phasors
Definition: A complex number c is said to be a phasor if
it is used to represent a sinusoidal waveform. That is,

where the phasor c = |c|ejc and Re{.} denotes the real part of the
complex quantity {.}.
The phasor can be written as: Or |c|.

ELCT 332 - Fall 2004