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MEC 531

Part C:
Design of Machine Elements

Chapter 4:
Design of Power Transmission Elements

Chapter Outline

4.1 Types of gears and force analysis

4.2 Shaft, layout and design for stress

Gear is a mechanical element/component by which a power can be

transmitted from one shaft to another.
Types of gear:
1. Spur gears
2. Helical gears
3. Bevel gears
4. Worm gears
Parallel shaft spur gears & helical gears.
Perpendicular two intersecting shaft bevel gears & worm gears.
Spur Gears

Teeth parallel to the axis of rotation.

Used to transmit motion from one
shaft to another, parallel, shaft.
Spur gear is the simplest and, for this
reason, will be used to develop the
primary kinematic relationships of
the tooth form.
Helical Gears

Teeth inclined to the axis of rotation.

Can be used for the same applications as spur gears.
Not noisy, because of the more gradual engagement of the teeth during
The inclined tooth also develops thrust loads and bending couples, which
are not present with spur gearing.
Helical gears are used to transmit motion between parallel and sometimes
are used to transmit motion between nonparallel shaft.
Bevel Gears

Teeth formed on conical surfaces and

are used mostly for transmitting
motion between intersecting shafts.
Three types:
1. Straight-tooth bevel gears
2. Spiral bevel gears
3. Hypoid gears
Worm Gears

Worm gear sets are used to transmit rotary

motion between nonparallel and
nonintersecting shafts.
Direction of rotation of the worm gear
depends upon the direction of rotation of the
worm and upon whether the worm teeth are
cut right-hand or lefthand.
Made so that the teeth of one or both wrap
partly around the other.
Two types:
1. Single-enveloping worm-gear sets.
2. Double-enveloping worm-gear sets.
Mostly used when the speed ratios of the two
shafts are quite high 3 or more.
Pitch circle a theoretical circle upon which all calculations are usually based.
Pitch diameter diameter of pitch circle.
Module, m ratio of the pitch diameter to the number of teeth.

Circular pitch, p distance, measured on the pitch circle, from a point on one
tooth to a corresponding point on the next tooth. (tooth thickness + width of

Addendum, a radial distance between the top land and the pitch circle.

Dedendum, b radial distance from the bottom land to the pitch circle.
Whole depth, ht = Addendum, a + Dedendum, b

Clearance circle circle that is tangent to the addendum circle of the mating

Clearance, c the amount by which the dedendum in a given gear exceeds the
addendum of its mating gear.
Gears Relationship

Relations between the previous nomenclatures:


P = diametral pitch, teeth per inch

N = number of teeth
d = pitch diameter, in
m = module, mm
d = pitch diameter, mm
p = circular pitch
Gears Relationship

An 18-tooth pinion is to mesh a 30-tooth gear. Given that the module of

the gear set is 12 mm/teeth. Determine the pitch diameter for the
pinion and gear.
Contact Ratio
Tooth contact begins and ends at the intersections of the two addendum circles with
the pressure line.
When a tooth is just beginning contact at a, the previous tooth is simultaneously
ending its contact at b.
Contact ratio can be defined as;

qt = arc of action
qr = arc of recess
qa= arc of approach

This ratio is equal to the length of the path of contact between the teeth divided by
the base pitch.
Contact ratio for gears should not be less than 1.20 inaccuracies in mounting might
reduce the contact ratio, therefore may increase impact of teeth and generate noise.
Forming Of Gear Teeth
Ways of forming teeth of gears may vary from:
Sand casting Permanent-mold casting
Die casting Shell molding
Centrifugal casting Investment casting
Powder metallurgy process Extrusion process
Cold forming or cold rolling

Gear teeth may be machined by milling, shaping, or hobbing.

They may be finished by shaving, burnishing, grinding, or lapping.

Gears made of thermoplastics such as nylon,n polycarbonate, acetal
are quite popular and are easily manufactured by injection molding.
Are low to moderate precision, low in cost for high production
quantities, and capable of light loads, an run without lubrication.
Forming Of Gear Teeth

Gear teeth may be cut with a form milling cutter shaped to conform to
the tooth space.
Need to use a different cutter for each gear because a gear having 25
teeth, for example, will have a differentshaped tooth from one having,
say, 24 teeth.
A separate set of cutters is required for each pitch
Forming Of Gear Teeth
Teeth may be generated with either a pinion cutter or a rack cutter.
The pinion reciprocates along the vertical axis and is slowly fed into
the gear blank to the required depth.
When the pitch circles are tangent, both the cutter and the blank
rotate slightly after each cutting stroke.
Since each tooth of the cutter is a cutting tool, the teeth are all cut
after the blank has completed one rotation.
Forming Of Gear Teeth
The hob is simply a cutting tool that is shaped like a worm.
The teeth have straight sides, as in a rack, but the hob axis must be turned
through the lead angle in order to cut spur-gear teeth.
For this reason, the teeth generated by a hob have a slightly different shape
from those generated by a rack cutter.
Both the hob and the blank must be rotated at the proper angular-velocity ratio.
The hob is then fed slowly across the face of the blank until all the teeth have
been cut.
Gear Trains

Speed of a pinion 2 driving a gear 3 is given by:

Where n = revolutions or rev/min

N = number of teeth
d = pitch diameter

Above equation applies to any gearset spur, bevel, helical or worm.

Absolute value user can define positive or negative gear rotation
But for spur and parallel helical gears positive for counterclockwise
Driven Gears Speed

The speed of the above driven gear 6 is given as:

No ratio between N4 and N5 because the gears attached to each

For spur gears, e is positive if the last gear rotates in the same way
as the first gear.
Driven Gears Speed

Train value, e is defined as:

Product of either driving or driven tooth numbers:

Number of teeth, N
Pitch diameters, d
Relation between the speed of the last gear and the first gear in
the train:

A 17-tooth spur gear (pinion) with a diametral pitch, P of 8, n2 = 1120 rpm,

n3 = 544 rpm. Determine the number of teeth in the gear and center to
center distance between the gears.
Force Analysis-spur Gearing
FBD of Forces and Moments
Force Analysis-spur Gearing

Designation of gear will start with gear 2 as the input and then
number the gears successively 3, 4, etc until the last gear in the train.
Shafts will be designated as lowercase letters a, b, c, etc.
Force exerted by gear 2 against gear 3 F23
Force of gear 2 against a shaft a F2a
Radial component of force Fr
Tangential component of force Ft
Torque exerted by shaft a against pinion 2 Ta2
Force Analysis-spur Gearing

Transmitted load: or [kN]

Where H = power, kW
d = gear diameter, mm
n = speed, rev/min


Power transmitted:
Gear data is often tabulated using pitch-line velocity, V

Where V = pitch-line velocity, mm/s

d = gear diameter, mm
n = gear speed, rev/s
Force Analysis-bevel Gearing

Transmitted load:

Other forces acting at the center of the tooth:

Force Analysis-helical Gearing

Three (3) components of the total

(normal) tooth force W:

If Wt is given:
Force Analysis-worm Gearing

Considering coefficient of friction, f :

Efficiency of worm gearset:

Three (3) orthogonal components:

Coefficient of friction is dependent on

the relative or sliding velocity, VS

A shaft is a rotating member, usually of circular cross section, used to

transmit power or motion.
The deflection and slope analyses cannot be made until the geometry of
the entire shaft has been defined.
Necessary strength in shaft to resist loading stresses affects the choice of
materials and their treatments.

A good practice is to start with an inexpensive, low or medium carbon

steel for the first time through the design calculations. If strength
considerations turn out to dominate over deflection, then a higher
strength material should be tried, allowing the shaft sizes to be reduced
until excess deflection becomes an issue.
For low production, turning is the usual primary shaping process, high
production may permit a volume-conservative shaping method (hot or
cold forming, casting), and minimum material in the shaft can become a
design goal.
Shaft Layout

Axial Layout of Component:

It is best to support load-carrying components between bearings.
Shafts should be kept short to minimize bending moments and
Supporting Axial Loads
When axial loads are not trivial, a means to transfer the axial loads
into the shaft, then through a bearing to the ground is necessary.
It is generally best to have only one bearing carry the axial load.
Assembly and Disassembly
When components are to be press-fit to the shaft, the shaft should
be designed so that it is not necessary to press the component
down a long length of shaft.
Shaft Layout

Providing for Torque Transmission

Common torque-transfer elements are :
Keys Splines Setscrews
Pins Tapered fits Press or shrink fits
In addition to transmitting the torque, many of these devices are
designed to fail if the torque exceeds acceptable operating limits,
protecting more expensive components.
Limits and Fits

In the standard if limits and fits, capital letters

always refer to the hole; lowercase letters are
used for the shaft.
For the hole

For shafts with clearance fits c, d, f, g, and h,

For shafts with interference fits k, n, p, s, and

Miscellaneous Shaft Components

Setscrews : Setscrew depends on compression to develop the clamping

force, due to frictional resistance of the contacting portions of the collar
and shaft as well as any slight penetration of the setscrew into the shaft.
Keys and Pins : Keys are used to enable the transmission of torque from
the shaft to the shaft-supported element. Pins are used for axial
positioning and for the transfer of torque or thrust or both.
Retaining Rings : used to axially position a component on a shaft or in a
housing bore.
Shaft Design for Stress : Critical Locations

Critical locations will usually be on the outer surface, at axial locations

where the bending moment is large, where the torque is present, and
where stress concentrations exist.
Most shafts will transmit torque through a portion of the shaft. The shear
stress due to the torsion will be greatest on outer surfaces.
Axial stresses on shafts due to the axial components transmitted through
helical gears or tapered roller bearings will almost always be negligibly
small compared to the bending moment stress.
Shaft Design for Stress : Stress Analysis

Assuming a solid shaft with round cross section, appropriate geometry

terms can be introduced for c, I, and J resulting in the fluctuating stresses
due to bending and torsion as

Combining these stresses in accordance with the distortion energy failure

theory, the von Mises stresses for rotating round, solid shafts, neglecting
axial loads, are given by
Shaft Design for Stress : Stress Analysis

These equivalent alternating and midrange stresses can be evaluated

using an appropriate failure curve on the modified Goodman diagram as

A von Mises maximum stress for static failure is calculated

Shaft Design for Stress : Stress Concentration
Stress concentrations for shoulders and keyways are
dependent on size specifications that are not known the
first time through the process.
These stress concentrations will be fine-tuned in
successive iterations, once the details are known.
In cases where the shoulder at the bearing is found to be
critical, the designer should plan to select a bearing with
generous fillet radius
A keyway will produce a stress concentration near a
critical point where the load-transmitting component is
Some typical stress concentration factors for the first
iteration in the design of a shaft.
Deflection Considerations

Deflection analysis requires complete shaft geometry information.

Typical ranges for maximum slopes and transverse deflections of the shaft
centerline are given in the table.
Once deflections at various points have been determined, the shaft diameter can
be found from

where yall is the allowable deflection at that station and nd is the design factor.

For a stepped shaft with individual cylinder

length li and torque Ti in torsion, the angular
deflection can be estimated from

The torsional stiffness of the shaft k in terms

of segment stiffnesses is
Critical Speeds for Shafts

When a shaft is turning, eccentricity causes a centrifugal force deflection,

which is resisted by the shafts flexural rigidity E I. At certain speeds,
critical speeds, the shaft is unstable, with deflections increasing without
upper bound.
The shaft, because of its own mass, has a critical speed as

where m is the mass per unit length, A the cross-sectional area, and the specific weight.